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2934301/11/2022 07:00Tool
Civil society
Wetlands International
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Pacific/Oceania, South AmericaGlobal
Academics and scientists, Policy makers, Practitioners05/12/2022 14:12No presence informationStefan Dierks
(1) To see the raw data click here (2) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666017221000055
Adaptation planning and practices, Communication and outreach/awareness, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Technology supportEcosystems, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction
crmmocservices
The GMW platform uses JAXA’s ALOS data, USGS LandSat data, and ESA’s Sentinel-2 data along with local expertise to track the relative gain and loss of mangroves across the planet. It is the only platform of its kind which accurately maps not only loss and gains in mangroves globally, but also which mangroves are protected, how much carbon they can store in both aboveground biomass and mangrove soil, and presents this information in a way that is relevant for policy. It is free for anyone to use. The latest data is featured in the second edition of the State of the World’s Mangroves report which shows that: 
 - The trend from 1996 to 2020 is a net decline of 5,245 km2 in mangrove extent, globally. There has been a reduction of 3.4% of our planet’s mangroves since 1996, with the biggest loss occurring in Asia (2813 km2 or 4.6%), Africa (648 km2 or 2.2%) and the Pacific (524 km2 or 3.1%). 
- The most common cause of mangrove loss is clearance and conversion to farmland, agriculture, and/ or urbanization 8,183 km2 of mangroves are considered restorable, of which 2,000km2 are in Indonesia. 
- Full restoration of the entire 8,183km2 could result in an additional 50 billion commercial marine species and benefit the countless communities that rely on fishing for their livelihoods. 
- Restoration of losses since 1996 could safeguard carbon in soil and aboveground biomass equivalent to 1.27gigatons of CO2. The determination to safeguard mangroves is growing at all levels from international to local. With this new update, Global Mangrove Watch provides an accurate regional and national mangrove baseline for encouraging and supporting the development of policies and management plans for the sustainable use and restoration of mangroves. 

The platform is being continually updated with new datasets and several tools will soon be launched to support policy development and tracking of restoration progress and success. Lammert Hilarides, Senior Technical Officer at Wetlands International said: “When we see the other mapping tools, for everything from tree cover to fishing, and we consider the incredible value mangroves have in building resilience to climate change, creating a platform that accurately tells the global story of mangroves is a no-brainer. The global mangrove watch platform is the combined effort of space agencies, scientific institutions, companies, NGO’s and their local partners which recognizes that while space may be the final frontier, our planet is still our only home and mangroves play a significant role in ensuring the longevity of life on Earth.”
2420NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportGlobal platform
www.globalmangrovewatch.org;#Global Mangrove Watch is an online global platform that provides access to a variety of datasets detailing mangrove values, threats and opportunities for conservation and restoration.
  
2934201/10/2022 07:00Tool
ECA has been applied in more than 30 countries world wide. The framework as it, as been extensively used and further developed in San Salvador, Honduras, Ethiopia and Vietnam in close collaboration with local and international stakeholders. Why should I use ECA? LONG-TERM INVESTMENT PLANING ECA allows extension of investment portfolios, e.g. in a given country or sector. Depending on the volume of the investment, a detailed study for CCA measures might be meaningful. NAPs DEVELOPMENT Numerous governments are looking into developing their National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). ECA supports countries in formulating detailed NAPs and assists in decision-making processes for further implementation. The level of detail depends on the volume of the project and the prospect of an investment in CCA measures. RISK TRANSFER In some cases, governments or businesses might be interested in completing already existing CCA measures and looking into potential for risk transfer for low-frequency hazards. STRATEGIC PLANING ECA provides a prospective assessment of measures that are best adapted to certain conditions in a well-determined area. The level of detail can be high locally or moderate when going beyond the country level. PRE_FEASIBILITY ECA provides a prospective CCA assessment in order to identify efficient measures and areas most at risk. This approach is embedded in an iterative assessment prospect if deemed meaningful.
Civil society
United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, South AmericaLocal, National, Regional, Subregional, Transboundary
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector05/12/2022 14:12No presence informationStefan Dierks
General Information in ECA: https://ehs.unu.edu/news/news/economics-of-climate-adaptation-eca-the-tool-to-support-countries-and-communities-to-develop-more-ambitious-climate-adaptation-and-mitigation-plans.html Press release about ECA in Honduras: https://reliefweb.int/report/honduras/eca-studies-pave-way-combating-flooding-honduras https://reliefweb.int/report/honduras/honduras-etiop-y-vietnam-hacen-frente-al-cambio-clim-tico-con-la-ayuda-de-la (in Spanish) Infographics on ECA: https://i.unu.edu/media/ehs.unu.edu/attachment/23351/ECA_infographic_LOGO.png
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate scenarios, Communication and outreach/awareness, Financial support, Impact assessment, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement, Technology support, Vulnerability assessmentWater resources, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Adaptation finance, Disaster risk reduction, Urban resilience
crmmocservices
What is the Economics of Climate Adaptation (ECA)? The approach taken under the Economics of Climate Adaptation (ECA) framework provides decision makers with information about potential climate-related damage to their environment, economies and societies. It can foster comprehensive adaptation strategies by analysing and proposing a variety of specific adaptation measures in a systematic way. Well targeted, early investments to improve climate resilience are likely to be less cost intensive and more effective than complex post-disaster relief efforts, both locally and on an aggregated global scale. ECA addresses the following key questions to develop an effective climate adaptation strategy: 1) What is the potential climate-related damage over the coming decades? 2) How much of that damage can be averted, using what type of adaptation measures? 3) What investments will be required to fund those measures – and will the benefits of these investments outweigh the costs? What does ECA provide? Powered by CLIMADA, an open-source modelling platform, the ECA framework helps promoting resilience through the assessment of weather and climate risks and the integration of appropriate climate change adaptation (CCA) measures. More particularly, it supports governments, businesses and individuals with the following: 1) CLIMATE RISK IDENTIFICATION Conduct an identification of climate risk in a defined region (e.g. urban area), identify areas and people at risk, spanning all significant climate hazards and the full range of possible impacts for different sectors 2) CLIMATE RISK QUANTIFICATION Calculate the expected damage across multiple climate and economic scenarios 3) IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITIZATION OF CCA MEASURES Determine strategies, including a portfolio of specific measures with detailed cost-benefit assessment 4) ENABLING MULTI-STAKEHOLDER COLLABORATION Ensure local involvement in order to create a long-term and transparent adaptation strategy
2409NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportSwitzerland, Germany
  
2934101/10/2022 07:00Knowledge Resource
Research institution, University/education/training organization
Indian Institute for Human Settlements
AsiaNational, Regional, Transboundary
India
Academics and scientists, Policy makers01/10/2022 07:00crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Impact assessment, Institutional arrangements, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Vulnerability assessmentDisaster risk reduction, Human settlements, Infrastructure, Services, Urban resilience, Water resources
crmmocservices
Loss and Damage studies have tended to focus on rapid-onset events with lesser attention to slow-onset events such as drought. Even when discussed, narratives around droughts emphasize implications on rural populations and there remain empirical and conceptual gaps on drought impacts in urban areas. We focus on losses and damages associated with urban drought and water insecurity through a review of interventions and policies in seven Asian countries. We find evidence of urban droughts leading to tangible losses (e.g. groundwater over-extraction, economic impacts) and intangible losses (e.g. conflict, increased drudgery). We highlight examples of Asian cities minimizing urban drought-related losses and damages through nature-based, institutional, technological, and behavioral adaptation interventions. We argue that water management policies that take into account current and projected L&D of urban droughts as well as beyond-urban dynamics of water availability and sharing are essential for effective climate adaptation.
2406NWPSearchableItemcsingh@iihs.ac.incsingh@iihs.ac.inScientific/peer reviewed publicationIndia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Turkey, and Bangladesh
www.iihs.co.in
  
2934001/10/2022 07:00Knowledge Resource
Non-governmental organization - NGO, Research institution
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Ethiopia Office
AfricaLocal, National
Ethiopia
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector01/10/2022 07:00crmmocservices
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116590
Adaptation planning and practices, Climate observations, Stakeholder involvementAgriculture, Food security
crmmocservices
The study examines the trends of climate parameters, assess farmers’ perception of climate change, and identify the strategies of adaptation measures in central Ethiopia. The results of the study indicate that, in most of the cases, farmers’ perceptions were in accordance with climate trend analyses. Farmers used crop diversification, adjustments of planting dates, destocking of livestock, seasonal migration, crop rotation, and climate information services to adapt to climate related shocks. Empirical results showed that the age and education of the household heads, family size, access to extension services, and farm and nonfarm incomes had a significant association with the adaptation practices farmers took. The existence of strong correlations between the demographic, socio-institutional variables, and the choice of adaptation strategies suggests the need to strengthen local institutions to enhance the adaptation of smallholder farmers to climate change.
2397NWPSearchableItemselamita2004@gmail.comselamita2004@gmail.comScientific/peer reviewed publicationEthiopia
https://www.cimmyt.org/
  
2933901/10/2022 07:00Knowledge Resource
Civil society
World Resources Institute
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Pacific/Oceania, South AmericaGlobal, Local, National, Regional
Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners01/10/2022 07:00crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Financial support, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Stakeholder involvementAgriculture, Ecosystems, Coastal areas/zones, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Adaptation finance, Human settlements, Gender, Indigenous and traditional knowledge, Urban resilience
crmmocservices
This paper provides a review of approaches to delivering locally led adaptation. Drawing on examples from Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Caribbean and Latin America, it provides practical recommendations for financing and implementing locally led adaptation. It helps demystify the steps funders and governments can take to ensure local partners have equitable access to climate finance and are at the center of decision-making processes.
2396NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report;#Scientific/peer reviewed publicationSouth Africa; Antigua & Barbuda; Namibia; Zimbabwe; Bangladesh; India; Kenya; Nepal; Mali; Indonesia; Micronesia; Costa Rica; Argentina; Paraguay; Bolivia
  
2933801/10/2022 07:00Knowledge Resource
Civil society
Mountain Research Initiative
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal
Academics and scientists, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector01/10/2022 07:00crmmocservices
Thornton, J. M., Pepin, N., Shahgedanova, M., & Adler, C. (2022). Coverage of In Situ Climatological Observations in the World’s Mountains. Frontiers in Climate, 0, 41. https://doi.org/10.3389/FCLIM.2022.814181
Climate observations, Impact assessment, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Technology support, Vulnerability assessmentFood security, Water resources, Disaster risk reduction, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Tourism, Services
crmmocservices
In a new research article from GEO Mountains, Thornton et al. analyse the coverage of in situ climatological observations across the world's mountains. In situ, climatological data from the world's mountains are crucial for many applications. As such, any limitations associated with such data (e.g., the limited spatial density of stations, short record lengths, relative lack of observations at higher elevations, etc.) can impinge upon several important activities, not least tracking changing mountain climates, better understanding the key processes and feedbacks involved, and making reliable projections of change impacts. Despite this, patterns of in situ climatological data coverage with respect to space, time, and elevation have not yet been assessed in detail on a global basis. To begin to address this gap, in a new GEO Mountains-led research article published in Frontiers in Climate, Thornton et al. used perhaps the most comprehensive global inventory available – Global Historical Climatological Network daily (GHCNd) – to investigate and compare patterns of air temperature, precipitation, and snow depth observation record coverage across 292 named mountain regions. For the first time, additional datasets were also introduced in order to assess data coverage in more relative terms, for example with respect to the hydrological importance and size of the downstream economy of each mountain range. An 'Open Science' approach, based on exclusively open data and software, was employed throughout. The article involved collaboration with the leads of the MRI's Elevation-Dependent Climate Change and Mountain Observatories Working Groups, and was a contribution to the Frontiers Research Topic 'Knowledge Gaps from the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate and Recent Advances (Volume II).' The article’s main findings are that: - Spatial patterns of mountain data coverage are highly uneven; - Station densities in several 'Water Tower Units' that were previously identified as having great hydrological importance to society are especially low; - A number of mountainous regions whose elevational distribution is severely under-sampled by GHCNd stations could be identified, and; - Mountain station density is only weakly related to the human population or economic output of the corresponding downstream catchments. Alongside the article, the authors provide a script that enables the temporal coverage (i.e., the proportion and periods of missing data vs. actual observations) and quality information (i.e., the frequency distribution of the quality flags assigned) to be efficiently presented for individual records. Since the script runs on any GHCNd station, it could provide useful applications beyond mountains. Besides being of interest to academic research groups, the article's insights should also help regional, national, and international organisations to make more informed decisions around investing in and maintaining in situ climatological monitoring efforts, such that networks are as optimised as possible (e.g., provide the most representative and informative observations at the lowest cost).
2375NWPSearchableItemScientific/peer reviewed publicationGlobal
  
2933323/09/2022 13:38NWP Partner profile
Private sector
Global
23/09/2022 13:38No presence informationSerkant Samurkas
Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Science and research, Technology supportAgriculture, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
No presence informationSerkant Samurkas
CarbonTerra was founded with farmers for farmers and is committed to encouraging climate-concious practices in agriculture. We believe that through generational changes to farm management, integration of technology and modern science protocols, agribusiness will lead to a balanced climate.
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
http://www.carbonterra.com, http://www.carbonterra.com
  
2933223/09/2022 13:37NWP Partner profile
University/education/training organization
Global
23/09/2022 13:37No presence informationSerkant Samurkas
Climate scenarios, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Impact assessment, Science and research, Stakeholder involvement, Vulnerability assessmentAdaptation finance, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Community-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Ecosystems, Energy, Food security, Gender, Human settlements, Infrastructure, Urban resilience, Water resources
No presence informationSerkant Samurkas
The ClimateWise Transition Risk Framework provides an open-source, step-by-step methodology on how to manage the risks and capture emerging opportunities from the low carbon transition. Transition risks include market and technological shifts, policy and legal changes and reputational damage. The framework is designed to help investors assess the breadth of asset types exposed to transition risk at portfolio level, define the potential financial impact of the low carbon transition down to asset level and incorporate transition impacts into asset financial models. The ClimateWise Physical Risk Framework demonstrates how the expertise and tools of the insurance industry can support other parts of the financial system to understand their physical risk exposure. Physical risks include rising temperatures, flooding, drought, sea level rise and water scarcity, of which associated financial losses (both insured and uninsured) have significantly increased in recent years. The framework offers real estate investors and lenders a means of understanding the potential physical risks of climate change on their portfolios.
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
https://www.cisl.cam.ac.uk/business-action/sustainable-finance/climatewise/research/climate-risk, https://www.cisl.cam.ac.uk/business-action/sustainable-finance/climatewise/research/climate-risk
  
2933119/07/2022 11:06NWP Partner profile
Private sector
Global; Local; Regional
19/07/2022 11:06crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices; Climate scenarios; Communication and outreach/awareness; Education and training; Knowledge management; Science and research; Socio-economic data and information; Stakeholder involvementAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Disaster risk reduction, Energy, Gender, Indigenous and traditional knowledge, Urban resilience
crmmocservices
Solar Energy, Water management and smart agriculture
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
https://bothouniversity.com/, https://bothouniversity.com/
  
2933019/07/2022 11:06NWP Partner profile
University/education/training organization
Global, Local
19/07/2022 11:06crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvementBiodiversity, Community-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Ecosystems, Food security, Indigenous and traditional knowledge, Services, Tourism, Water resources
crmmocservices
Mountain Sentinels is an international community that fosters global mountain sustainability by serving as a catalyst for innovative solutions and actions, aiming to bring together local and Indigenous knowledge, policy, industry, and transformational science, and elevating diverse voices through authentic partnerships. The rate of global warming is amplified at higher elevations; therefore, mountains are disproportionately threatened by climate change compared to lowlands. Our work aims to address critical sustainability issues, including adaptation to climate change, using an approach we call transformative science with society.
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
https://mountainsentinels.org/, https://mountainsentinels.org/
  
2932915/07/2022 14:56NWP Partner profile
National
15/07/2022 14:59No presence informationStefan Dierks
Adaptation finance, Gender
crmmocservices
The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Global Network supports developing countries to advance their NAP processes to help accelerate climate change adaptation efforts around the world. The NAP Global Network connects over 1,500 participants from more than 150 countries working on national adaptation planning and action, and has delivered direct support to more than 50 countries.
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2932814/07/2022 11:16Knowledge Resource
Civil society
Wageningen University
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, South AmericaGlobal, Local, National, Regional, Subregional
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector14/07/2022 11:16crmmocservices

Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Financial support, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Stakeholder involvementAgriculture, Food security, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Health, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Gender, Indigenous and traditional knowledge, Urban resilience, Services
crmmocservices
Motivation and context:
Robust monitoring, evaluation, and learning (MEL) frameworks can play an essential role in increasing one's adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change, by allowing organizations, policymakers, and practitioners to assess and improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of their climate change adaptation actions regardless of the context and scale. 

This project and report's specific purpose was to identify relevant MEL frameworks, tools, and approaches that could be applied to systematically measure the impact of knowledge products on the implementation and scaling up of adaptation in the context of the work of the NWP. Methodology The research and writing team of this report adopted a stepwise approach and methodology that consisted of four sequential steps:
1) a review of the existing literature,
2) soliciting inputs from experts through interviews,
3) a comparative assessment of relevant MEL approaches, frameworks, and tools, and
4) formulating recommendations.

The insights from the literature review, expert interviews, and comparative assessment were iteratively integrated in this report, initially discussed in different sections, to then be combined to form the evidence base for the recommendations. The literature review consisted of both peer-reviewed literature and gray literature – including, amongst others, reports and working papers from governments, NGOs, and international organizations. Semi-structured interviews based off a standardized questionnaire constructed by the research team were conducted with various experts engaging in the field of MEL, who shared insights according to their knowledge and experience in applying specific MEL approaches and tools to their work. 
The comparative assessment, divided the approaches and applications found in the literature review and expert interviews by shared features, resulting in three distinct overall approaches of MEL to be compared. Relevant applications of each approach were then described and comparatively assessed over a variety of criteria.
The three initial phases of the project culminated in a series of evidence-based recommendations and MEL framework features that are highlighted and divided into 3 main subcategories. Key findings From the review of the literature, it emerged that there is no universally accepted definition of MEL in the context of climate change adaptation. Key specific features such as indicators and criteria for assessment differ according to the context, requirements, and objective of the different MEL frameworks, highlighting a no ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach. However, some common features identified underscore the use, function and importance of MEL frameworks, including integration of information across sectors, geographical scales, and through time; community learning and capacity development; supporting governments in planning and decision-making processes; and identifying investment priorities at different levels. Overall, across scales and contexts, MEL systems are characterized by (1) the definition of the context of the MEL system; (2) the identification of the content (i.e., adaptation intervention) to be monitored; (3) the design of the operationalization process; and (4) the establishment of strategies to communicate the results, in line with the purpose of the MEL system.

The comparative assessment of MEL approaches was articulated around three overall approaches identified: 
1) Outcome Mapping which focuses on the changes - in behavior, relationships, activities or actions of the ‘boundary partners’;
2) Theory of Change/Theory of Action which helps to assess the pathway through which action and change will be achieved; and
3) Co-Productive Approaches with MEL framework embedded in an inclusive, collaborative and flexible process to improve the use and uptake of knowledge, leading to action.
Some key features highlighted in the assessment included the scope each MEL frameworks was applied within (local, regional, national and global scales), the diversity of boundary partners, the diversity in types of indicators used across different contexts and levels, and the types adaptive, flexible and iterative approaches used in each framework. Several challenges identified across approaches and applications included achieving sufficient engagement of key stakeholders across scales with respect to inclusivity, capacity, and depth of engagement (amongst other factors) in the design and operationalization of these MELs; the availability and accessibility of consistent, reliable and action-oriented data to knowledge partners; and contextualization (or lack thereof) of adaptation outcomes and impacts following an intervention action or project. Additional challenges found within all three initial phases of this project address additional issues with effective and efficient stakeholder engagement, issues in navigating limited resources (such as time, data, financial, technical, and/or institutional capacity), the impact of climate change uncertainty factors, the impact of and difficulty in establishing baselines and targets for future projects and projections, challenges in assessing attribution, and effectively applying an MEL framework that can operate over long time horizons.

Recommendations 
The recommendations of this report are divided into three main categories: Methodological Considerations, Indicators and Criteria, and Capacity Building and Institutional Context, all of which are further supplemented by Appendix 05 which is comprised of a list of resources deemed to be relevant references for the deployment and development of an operational MEL. The Methodological Considerations section is a series of recommendations on how to combine different approaches and methodologies from the Theory of Change, Outcome Mapping, and Co-Productive MEL approaches for the creation of an operational and specialized MEL framework for climate adaptation and knowledge uptake. The primary recommendations of the Indicators and Criteria section revolve around the importance and necessity of standardizing the operational definitions of key terms, concepts, and indicators across programs and projects. This includes the importance of including relevant climate indicators (such as hydro-meteorological indicators) in projects revolving around climate adaptation or mitigation projects as a factor for assessing the outputs, outcomes, and impacts under shifting baselines due to climate change uncertainties. The final recommendation section, Capacity Building and Institutional Context, highlights the importance of designing and implementing a parallel structure within an MEL so as to assess both the internal and external capacities of a project or program and the context (i.e., region, community, institution, government) it is applied within to determine both the framework and project’s ability to sustainably function and achieve set objectives. If the design of a project or program cannot be sustainably supported or realized in the region, then that has implications for how successful and effective that project and intervention may be. Both this section and the first include recommendations for the inclusion of and amplification of stakeholders’ concerns, voices, and input. The report is then concluded with a section discussing its report’s Limitations in the context of the course framework, time frame, and resources available, followed by the bibliography and appendices.
2371NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report;#Multimedia material;#Educational/training materialAll countries that are parties under the UNFCCC convention
  
2530822/04/2016 11:56NWP Partner profilePartner portal

International Institute for Sustainable Development

Global
13/07/2022 17:20No presence informationStefan Dierks
Roberto Felix
IISD’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Knowledge Program provides information and analysis in support of the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including the 17 SDGs. Our work seeks to enhance SDG implementation by: • increasing the accountability of decision-makers, • transforming patterns, processes and relationships for implementation and engagement, and • developing and applying methods to track progress in new ways. We pursue these objectives through, inter alia, our information sharing and dissemination work on the SDG Knowledge Hub. One of the Hub's main focal areas is climate action, and we publish regular climate change adaptation and loss and damage updates here: http://sdg.iisd.org/tag/adaptation-and-loss-and-damage-update/ The IISD also hosts the Secretariat of the NAP Global Network (http://napglobalnetwork.org/), a forum in which bilateral donors can engage with one another to coordinate adaptation support.
NWPSearchableItemchunter@iisd.cacledwell@iisd.ca 
  
2932707/07/2022 16:16Online portal
Actors implementing adaptation in mountain regions (and elsewhere) need detailed information on potential adaptation solutions to appraise which solutions are most suitable for their needs, budget, and capacities, and to replicate them while also tailoring them to their context. To support the scaling of successful solutions this information needs to be shared in a structured way that makes it easily discoverable and accessible to a diverse array of actors. Providing such detailed information, some of which is tacit, can be challenging for those contributing the solutions. 

It is important to offer support to contributors and provide different pathways (e.g. word documents as opposed to direct entry into a database system) for them to contribute their work Knowledge fragmentation remains a major issue in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Now that the Adaptation at Altitude Solutions Portal is up and running, emphasis is being put on using it to connect different databases sharing climate-related knowledge for mountains, to make it easier for those working in these regions to find all the knowledge they need.
Civil society
Stockholm Environment Institute
Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South AmericaGlobal, Local, National, Regional, Subregional, Transboundary
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector07/07/2022 16:16crmmocservices
The Adaptation at Altitude Solutions Portal: A global database of CCA solutions for mountain regions - https://www.weadapt.org/knowledge-base/adaptation-in-mountains/the-adaptation-at-altitude-solutions-portal​
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Financial support, Impact assessment, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement, Technology support, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Health, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Adaptation finance, Disaster risk reduction, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Gender, Indigenous and traditional knowledge, Urban resilience, Tourism, Services
crmmocservices
Mountains feature some of the clearest indications of climate change: rising temperatures, melting glaciers and changing precipitation patterns, which are disrupting water flows and affecting ecosystems, creating and worsening natural hazards and threatening livelihoods and communities both within the mountains and downstream. The Adaptation at Altitude Solutions Portal has been designed to support the sharing and transfer of knowledge on interventions that are helping to reduce vulnerability and climate risk in the mountains. The Portal provides easy access to information on tried, tested, and replicable solutions, making these solutions easier to find, explore, and appraise for everyone working on this topic. 

The Portal is also specifically designed to give visibility and recognition to solution contributors and enable potential adopters of solutions to connect with those who have implemented these solutions in the field. The Portal is open to contributions from all actors working in mountains, and these are welcomed and encouraged to share their implemented solutions. Details of guidance and support to enable this are available here

Prior to publishing, solutions are evaluated according to the evaluation criteria. This criteria is published here. The ‘solutions’ in the Portal include technologies, approaches, and/or processes to adjust natural or human systems to actual or expected climate impacts, in order to reduce expected losses or harness benefits. The diverse array of solutions in the Portal ranges from community-based initiatives to early warning systems to education programmes to land restoration and many more. 

The solutions can be filtered by scales of implementation, ecosystem types, solution types, and impacts addressed. They incorporate disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and ecosystem restoration approaches. Solutions in the Portal contain key information to support its replication in and tailoring to other contexts, including: 
  • Who the solution benefits
  • Its target and reported outcomes
  • Which SDGs and Sendai Framework goals it addresses
  • How it was planned, implemented, and funded
  • What is innovative about it
  • How its performance has been evaluated and what the results of this are
  • Its long-term sustainability including actions taken to ensure its sustainability 
  • The capacities required for its successful implementation, including knowledge, technology, political, institutional and socio-cultural capacities
  • Its outlook and potential for scaling and transformation
  • What barriers and adverse effects have been observed and actions taken to mitigate these, and 
  • Links to supporting and relevant resources and documentation

The Adaptation at Altitude (A@A) Solutions Portal is being developed through the Adaptation at Altitude programme, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), which seeks to support mountain communities and those working with them by improving the knowledge of appropriate climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategies in the mountains, and transferring that knowledge through science–policy platforms to inform decision-making in national, regional and global policy processes.
2303NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2932607/07/2022 16:06Knowledge Resource
Civil society
Center for Climate Change Adaptation
Asia, Pacific/OceaniaGlobal, Local, National, Regional
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector07/07/2022 16:06crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Impact assessment, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Health, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Urban resilience
crmmocservices
Aiming to build capacity for better climate adaptation, the Asia-Pacific Climate Change Adaptation Information Platform provides self-paced online learning videos and the most updated scientific tools to support various stakeholders in developing effective policies and planning relevant activities.

Adaptation Literacy provides self-paced e-learning videos for emerging adaptation issues. It includes past joint activities with key institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and presents datasets and state-of-the-art applications for projecting future climate impacts under various scenarios.​
2323NWPSearchableItemOnline portal;#Educational/training materialJapan
  
2932507/07/2022 15:56Online portal
Civil society
Stockholm Environment Institute
Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South AmericaGlobal
Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector07/07/2022 15:56crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Impact assessment, Knowledge management, Science and research, Stakeholder involvement, Vulnerability assessmentFood security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Human settlements, Indigenous and traditional knowledge, Urban resilience, Tourism
crmmocservices
The Climate Change Adaptation in Mountains theme on weADAPT.org (https://www.weadapt.org/mountains) is an open online space where users can access and share knowledge and projects on climate change adaptation and climate-related disaster risk in mountains. It hosts a diverse array of content including case studies, impact reports, good practice guides (including risk assessment and stakeholder engagement), research papers, policy briefs, project descriptions/outputs, webinars and learning resources. 

All shared content is open access and syntheses are provided to aid readers to understand, appraise and quickly access key messages from each item shared. This online theme space benefits from weADAPT's networking features, including the ability to contact people who have shared their work and those who have joined this thematic community (just click on their user profiles, and click on ‘Contact’), and a dedicated discussion forum for those working in mountain regions where users can ask the community questions and posts about relevant news and events. Interested users can ‘join’ the theme to post in the discussion forum, share their work, and receive alerts of new content being added to the theme. To do this, go to the theme homepage (https://www.weadapt.org/mountains) and click on the ‘Join’ button. This will also give you an option to sign up to the fortnightly weADAPT newsletter. It is easy to share your own work – find out more about the benefits of sharing your work and how you can do this here: https://www.weadapt.org/why-share-content-on-weadapt​
2332NWPSearchableItemOnline portalUnited Kingdom
  
2932407/07/2022 15:46Multimedia material
Civil society
This video features two countries—Fiji and Timor-Leste—that are effectively scaling up EbA actions through their NAP processes.
International Institute for Sustainable Development
Asia, Pacific/OceaniaNational
Timor-Leste and Fiji
Policy makers, Practitioners07/07/2022 15:46crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Education and training, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge managementEcosystems, Biodiversity, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
crmmocservices
Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is a critical part of the global solution to climate change. As a type of nature-based solution (NbS) for adaptation, EbA includes restoring, protecting, and managing ecosystems to ensure their health and the long-term effectiveness of the services they provide. When implemented correctly, these approaches help reduce vulnerabilities to climate risks, enhance livelihoods, and promote biodiversity conservation. Many countries are already using EbA to help build resilience to the impacts of climate change. In order to maximize its uptake and benefits, it is critical to integrate EbA actions into a country’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process. In this video, the NAP Global Network provides examples of key actions in Fiji and Timor-Leste's NAP processes that will scale up Ecosystem-based Adaptation in these countries. Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/K8QJAFLfTF8
2343NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2931522/06/2022 15:26NWP Partner profile
University/education/training organization
Global
06/07/2022 15:54No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Adaptation planning and practices, Impact assessment, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvementAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Coastal areas/zones, Health, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Energy, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Gender, Urban resilience
crmmocservices
NUI Galway has been inspiring minds since 1845 as a research-led university. NUI Galway is one of the oldest and largest universities in Ireland. The campus community includes over 21,000 students and staff and 110,000 alumni located in over 100 countries across the world. NUI Galway is counted among the Top 300 universities in the world according to the most prestigious rankings, positioned in the top 2% globally. NUI Galway is an international university with global ambition, but with deep roots in the region and nationally. Its location on the very edge of Europe gives NUI Galway a unique perspective. 

NUI Galway is at the heart of a distinct and vibrant region, renowned for its unique culture, creative industries, medical technologies, marine ecology and economy, and innovation. J.E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics is one of three Schools within the College of Business, Public Policy and Law at NUI Galway. The school has 2,800 students, over 120 faculty, research and professional services staff, and over 30 undergraduate and postgraduate programmes. The School has successfully attained AACSB and AMBA accreditation as well as EFMD programme accreditation. The School comprises five disciplines: Accountancy & Finance, Business Information Systems, Economics, Management, and Marketing. The School is synergistically aligned with the internationally-recognised Whitaker Institute for Innovation and Societal Change and the Institute for Lifecourse and Society (ILAS). J.E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics is for the public good. Energised by its regional edge on the west coast of Ireland, it is a globally-engaged School of Business and Economics for the public good that makes a transformative impact for students, society and business. 

The School’s Strategic Plan 2021-2025 is centred around four key strategic priority areas of research and impact, teaching and learning, external engagement and internationalisation. J.E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics champions core values of respect, excellence, openness and sustainability. Its vision for the next four years is to make a global impact for the public good by addressing grand challenges through its teaching, research and influence on public policy. The school is committed to delivering value to all its stakeholders and especially to students, external business, industry and policy partners, its community and society. Within the School, the Discipline of Economics is recognised nationally and internationally for its record in teaching, research and scholarship. The Discipline seeks to provide a flourishing and diverse academic environment which integrates teaching and research, theory and empirical applications, in a policy-oriented and interdisciplinary way. 

The primary teaching commitments of the Discipline include the economics components of the Bachelor of Arts, Commerce, and Financial Mathematics and Economics degrees at undergraduate level. At postgraduate level, the Discipline offers Masters programmes in Global Environmental Economics, Health Economics, Ageing and Public Policy, and International Finance. The Discipline has a vibrant PhD programme with over 20 students currently registered and a number of post-doctoral researchers working on externally funded research projects. In terms of its research profile, the Discipline has recognized expertise in areas including: Environmental, Marine, Agricultural, and Climate Change Economics; Health Economics; Ageing; International Finance and Macroeconomics; Economic Theory; and, Irish Economic History. This research is generally aligned with the research agendas of both the Whitaker and Lifecourse and Society research institutes. Discipline staff also advise government departments in Ireland and internationally across a range of topics related to these research areas.
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2932122/06/2022 23:06Knowledge Resource
Civil society
International Institute for Sustainable Development
Global, National
Policy makers, Practitioners22/06/2022 23:06crmmocservices
CORRECT CITATION Dazé, A., & Hunter, C. (2022). Gender-responsive National Adaptation Plan (NAP) processes: Progress and promising examples (NAP Global Network synthesis report 2021–2022). International Institute for Sustainable Development. www.napglobalnetwork.org
Adaptation planning and practices, Education and trainingGender
crmmocservices
This document is the third in a series of synthesis reports that assess progress on gender-responsive approaches in National Adaptation Plan (NAP) processes at the global level. It coincides with the midpoint of the Gender Action Plan under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), making this a good moment to reflect on progress in integrating gender considerations in NAP processes. 

We explore this through a systematic review of the NAP documents submitted to the UNFCCC, as well as through practical examples that illustrate how countries are taking a gender-responsive approach to their NAP processes. The progress shown in this report demonstrates the potential of NAP processes as a mechanism for ensuring that climate action addresses gender and social inequalities. As countries increasingly move from planning to implementation of adaptation actions, more opportunities are created to work with diverse stakeholders to build resilience while also creating more equitable communities and societies.
 
2364NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportGlobal
  
2931922/06/2022 21:46Tool
Civil society
Center for Climate Change Adaptation
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal, Local, National, Regional, Subregional, Transboundary
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector22/06/2022 22:00No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Impact assessment, Science and research, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Health, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Adaptation finance, Disaster risk reduction, Energy, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Gender, Indigenous and traditional knowledge, Urban resilience, Tourism, Services, Heavy industry
crmmocservices
ClimoCast is a climate projection tool that shows climate projections up to the year 2100 in four representative greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (SSP126 - 585) and ten major climate simulation models. The tool covers all countries and allows users to compare different scenarios and models, as well as downscale the results to sub-national level. Climate data can be downloaded in CSV format.
2321NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportJapan
  
2932022/06/2022 21:56Tool
Civil society
Center for Climate Change Adaptation
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal, Local, National, Regional, Subregional, Transboundary
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector22/06/2022 21:56crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate scenarios, Impact assessment, Science and research, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Coastal areas/zones, Health
crmmocservices
The Climate Impact Viewer shows the results of climate change impact assessment in various sectors, including the existing climate, water resources, vegetation, agriculture, and health. Users can visually compare global projections across different sectors and time scales.

The Climate Impact Viewer shows the results of a climate change impact assessment based on the Integrated Climate Assessment - Risks, Uncertainties and Society (ICA-RUS) and Comprehensive Research on the Development of Global Climate Change Risk Management Strategies (S-10 Strategic Research Project) supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund of the Ministry of the Environment of Japan. Process-based impact models for multiple sectors were used for future influence projections.
2322NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportJapan
  
2931622/06/2022 21:16Knowledge Resource
Regional center/network/initiative, UN and affiliated organization
Global Center on Adaptation
AfricaLocal, National, Regional, Subregional, Transboundary
Netherlands
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector22/06/2022 21:16crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Financial support, Impact assessment, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement, Technology support, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Health, Adaptation finance, Disaster risk reduction, Energy, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Gender, Urban resilience, Services
crmmocservices
The State and Trends in Adaptation Report 2021: How Adaptation Can Make Africa Safer, Greener and More Prosperous report combines in-depth analyses, case studies, and viewpoints from those on the frontlines of climate change impacts in Africa. It presents a detailed blueprint for action: offering innovative adaptation and resilience ideas, solutions, and policy recommendations. 

The results are clear and compelling. Adaptation measures can be enormously cost effective and have the potential to start a positively reinforcing cycle of benefits. As these measures protect people and communities from floods, droughts, and others impacts, they also help lift people out of poverty, reduce hunger and undernourishment, raise incomes and living standards, fight diseases, create jobs, reduce inequality, mitigate the risk of conflicts, and give voice to the most vulnerable. These realizable results, in turn, further increase resilience to climate impacts.
2297NWPSearchableItemsumiran.rastogi@gca.orgjulia.eichhorn@gca.orgTechnical document/reportAfrica
  
2931422/06/2022 12:36Knowledge Resource
Civil society
Ocean & Climate Platform
EuropeTransboundary
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector22/06/2022 12:36crmmocservicesAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Impact assessment, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement, Technology support, Vulnerability assessmentEcosystems, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Urban resilience
crmmocservices
The report "Adapting Coastal Cities and Territories to Sea Level Rise in Northern Europe: Challenges and Best Practices" draws on elements discussed during preliminary interviews and the Sea’ties Northern European Workshop hosted by the Ocean & Climate Platform on November 29, 2021. Intended for policymakers, city, and territorial planners, as well as residents willing to pursue transformational change on their coasts, the report provides an overview of current practices and obstacles to defining and implementing adaptation strategies. 

Accordingly, three key areas of concern emerged: 
  1. Despite substantive access to scientific information, the lack of systemic and localised assessments, feasibility measures, and monitoring, reporting, and evaluation (MRE) constitute considerable knowledge gaps that impede the implementation of tailored and informed strategies;
  2. As planners are eager to adopt hybrid and dynamic strategies, the institutional, financial, scientific, and socio-cultural conditions need to be adjusted accordingly; 
  3. Improving stakeholder engagement throughout the entire adaptation process is a prerequisite that necessitates additional efforts to ensure fair, effective, and long-term participation.
2344NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportBelgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, United Kingdom
  
2931322/06/2022 12:16NWP Partner profile
National/public entity
Global, Local, National, Regional, Subregional, Transboundary
22/06/2022 12:16crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Impact assessment, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement, Technology support, Vulnerability assessmentAdaptation finance, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Community-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Ecosystems
crmmocservices
JNCC is a public body that advises the UK Government and devolved administrations on UK-wide and international nature conservation. Our work involves improving understanding of the impacts of climate change, both on biodiversity and the benefits and services it provides. We undertake analyses and evaluations to identify and test approaches to adapting to, and mitigating, climate change impacts, and the costs and benefits of such actions. JNCC’s work includes: - Evaluating the benefits of biodiversity for mitigating climate change. - Advising on Nature-based Solutions to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change - Applying earth observation expertise to inform decisions affecting the environment, including assessing habitat condition, and providing facilities to support the 'big data'’ analysis needed to detect change - Assessing the economic and social value of the terrestrial and marine natural environment, and identifying priority natural capital assets and metrics - Developing scientific knowledge to understand the impact of climate change on vulnerable ecosystems - Informing policy development by understanding the consequences of climate change on biodiversity - Collaborating and guide future research to address knowledge gaps and safeguard biodiversity. More broadly, JNCC provides scientific and technical advice to the UK Government, its Devolved Administrations and the UK country nature conservation bodies on UK-wide and international nature conservation, including the interpretation, application and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements.
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
https://jncc.gov.uk/evaluating/climate-change/, https://jncc.gov.uk/evaluating/climate-change/
  
2931217/06/2022 17:26Case study
The key lessons learned include: 
  1. Local, on-the-ground partners are essential for scoping project aims and providing context for study areas;
  2. When possible, project participants should travel to study areas so as to maximize contextual understanding. However, travel was not possible during the course of this study due to the COVID-19 pandemic;
  3. Co-creation with local organizations is crucial. ICIMOD engages with a diverse number of partners and subject matter across sectors within the Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH) subregion, and thus is a leader in knowledge production and dissemination in the HKH region. This study greatly benefited from their expertise and input;
  4. Narrow scopes are useful and necessary to meet short timelines. However, additional work is needed to synthesize results to holistically address knowledge gaps. Thus, knowledge development should be ongoing and iterative.
Civil society
Due to the lack of methodologies for connecting climate change trends to impacts on forest, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, a GIS-based environmental stratification model was developed and captured in Python code to both identify current ecoregions in the Kangchenjunga Landscape (KL) and project future ecoregion distributions in the KL under two Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios. The steps of the model are described in an ArcGIS Story Map and all code is accessible on GitHub. 

The model found that by the year 2100, high-elevation ecoregions (3,000m - 8,586m) will either shrink or shift to higher elevations, mid-elevation ecoregions (500m - 3,000m) will expand, and low-elevation ecoregions (0m - 500m) will shrink substantially. The researchers assessed how these shifting ecoregions may impact the ability of protected areas to conserve umbrella species (i.e., snow leopard, red panda, Asian elephant, tiger) and ecosystem services as exemplified by the Rhododendron genus. 

The analysis found that suitable ecoregion area for each of these species will generally increase within protected area boundaries under both SSP scenarios. However, the realized use of suitable ecoregion area by the respective species depends on habitat connectivity, migration ability, and lack of habitat degradation. Given that this research exists within complex socio-ecological systems, the study also generated a conceptual framework for considering additional drivers of change, data inputs, and impact assessment techniques for developing comprehensive management plans and policies that promote both ecosystem and human well-being and resilience.
University of Michigan
AsiaSubregional, Transboundary
India, Bhutan, Nepal
Academics and scientists, Policy makers, Practitioners20/06/2022 15:38No presence informationLilian Daphine LunyoloAdaptation planning and practices, Climate scenarios, Impact assessment, Science and researchEcosystems, Biodiversity, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Services
crmmocservices
Climate change is causing ecoregions to shift in the Hindu Kush Himalayas, threatening both ecosystem services and biodiversity in the region. As these ecoregions shift, important ecological processes may be disrupted and species ranges may begin to move outside the protected areas that were designed to conserve them. Although transboundary landscape initiatives and adaptive management strategies exist in the HKH to mitigate these negative impacts, researchers and practitioners need methods to project how ecoregions may shift in response to the evolving conditions of climate change. 

Zomer et al. (2014) present one such method, whereby projected climate data is used to predict ecoregion distributions based on an environmental stratification method. This method was adapted to help address the priority knowledge gap identified by the Lima Adaptation Knowledge Initiative (LAKI) on the lack of methodologies and tools to quantify the impact of climate change on ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forests in HKH subregion. 

This aim was accomplished through the following steps: 
  1. modeling ecoregion shifts in the transboundary Kangchenjunga Landscape of the HKH under two Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) projected climate scenarios;
  2. increasing the transparency, replicability, and accessibility of the modeling process by providing shareable code;
  3. examining how these projected ecoregion shifts may impact biodiversity and ecosystem services in HKH protected areas. 
Researchers, academics, and practitioners can iterate, expand, and modify this method to inform management plans that protect species, people, and ecosystems from the threat of climate change.
2353NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2930613/06/2022 12:06Knowledge Resource
Civil society
International Union for Conservation of Nature
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal
Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners14/06/2022 20:29No presence informationBrian MayanjaAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Vulnerability assessmentWater resources, Ecosystems, Coastal areas/zones, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Infrastructure, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
crmmocservices
Innovative climate adaptation approaches that integrate both technology and nature-based solutions offer the potential to be more robust, comprehensive, and cost-effective than either solution alone.

This policy brief provides an overview of the value of integrated adaptation solutions and the challenges and opportunities to increasing their uptake and scaling, including through interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral approaches based on:  
  • ​​Partnerships;   
  • Supportive policy and regulatory frameworks;   
  • Sustained, innovative and accessible financing;   
  • Use of evidence-based targets.​
2356NWPSearchableItemPolicy briefGlobal
  
2930914/06/2022 15:46Knowledge Resource
Civil society
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector14/06/2022 20:22No presence informationBrian Mayanja
https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/NWPStaging/Pages/Search.aspx
Adaptation planning and practices, Education and training, Knowledge management, Science and research, Stakeholder involvementFood security, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
Increasing temperatures, Land and forest degradation, Loss of biodiversitycrmmocservices
This briefing paper summarizes knowledge gaps in integrating forest and grassland biodiversity and ecosystems into adaptation strategies. As part of thematic work under the Nairobi Work Programme, the secretariat collaborated with an expert group on biodiversity and adaptation to:   ​​
  1. ​Articulate the role of biodiversity and ecosystems in adaptation strategies, and identify challenges, including knowledge gaps, in relation to integrating biodiversity and ecosystems into adaptation strategies;   
  2. Discuss approaches and strategies needed to address gaps and challenges, including examples of good practices in integrating biodiversity and ecosystems into adaptation strategies (focusing on forest and grassland ecosystems), through case studies;   
  3. Identify a specific set of actions that the expert group can co-design and deliver to address the knowledge gaps.​
2359NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportWorldwide
  
2931014/06/2022 15:46Knowledge Resource
Civil society
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal, Local, National, Regional, Subregional, Transboundary
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector14/06/2022 20:08No presence informationBrian MayanjaAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Science and research, Stakeholder involvementCoastal areas/zones, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Human settlements, Urban resilience
crmmocservices
This report aims to strengthen understanding of the adaptation knowledge needs of countries as they relate to the ocean; curate and share knowledge; and outline actions to address knowledge gaps. This report is part of work under the Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) in collaboration with an expert group on oceans, aiming to assist Parties in building resilience of oceans, coastal areas and ecosystems.   

The report also offers an overview of collaborative actions across the following thematic areas:
  • ​Governance and participation: coordinate and strengthen approaches; 
  • Data and methods: ensure availability of data and facilitate access to robust data and method​s; 
  • Protection and restoration: provide a collective, long-term and inclusive approach;  
  • Facilitate support for: capacity-building and education; technology and innovation; finance and funding.​
 
2360NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportWorldwide
  
2931114/06/2022 15:46Tool
Civil society
World Meteorological Organization
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal, Local, Regional, Subregional
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector14/06/2022 15:46crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Climate observations, Climate scenarios, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Impact assessment, Knowledge management, Science and research, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Coastal areas/zones, Disaster risk reduction, Energy, Food security, Health, Human settlements, Infrastructure, Services, Tourism, Urban resilience, Water resources
crmmocservices
This service provides: Instant summary reports of climate change for any site on the globe. Easy access to many pre-calculated climate indicators, based on state-of-the-art in climate science, of the past, present and future. Guidance on how to link global changes to local observations.
2361NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/reportSwedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and GCF
  
2930814/06/2022 15:46Knowledge Resource
Civil society
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector14/06/2022 15:46crmmocservices
https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/NWPStaging/Pages/Search.aspx
Adaptation planning and practices, Knowledge management, Science and researchEcosystems, Biodiversity, Ecosystem-based adaptation
crmmocservices
This paper is intended for Parties to the UNFCCC and non-State actors. Its purpose is to stimulate discussion and translate knowledge into action with a view to integrating the biodiversity and ecosystems of forests and grasslands into adaptation strategies. The scope of the paper includes the identification of adaptation knowledge gaps at the local, subnational, national, regional and global level. The findings from this paper serve as an input to the 14th NWP Focal Point Forum, to be held in conjunction with COP 26. The Forum provides an interactive space for Parties, NWP partner organizations and thematic experts to exchange views and insights on thematic areas, knowledge gaps and action needed at different levels. The secretariat collaborated with an expert group on biodiversity and adaptation to: Review the role of biodiversity and ecosystems in adaptation strategies, including communitybased, ecosystem-based and hybrid approaches; Identify knowledge gaps and needs regarding the integration of biodiversity and ecosystems into adaptation. To align with the mandate of the NWP, this work focuses on forest and grassland ecosystems. The analysis draws on examples from different countries and regions, including the LDCs, small island developing States and African countries; Discuss approaches and strategies for addressing knowledge gaps, including discussion of good practices (through case studies) of where and how biodiversity has been integrated into adaptation strategies at various scales.
2358NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report;#Educational/training materialWorldwide
  
2930713/06/2022 13:26NWP Partner profile
Research institution
Global, Regional
13/06/2022 13:36No presence informationStefan Dierks
Capacity building, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Knowledge management, Science and research, Stakeholder involvementAgriculture, Food security, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Health, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Energy, Gender, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
crmmocservices
Our mission is to help the world reach “drawdown”—the point in the future when levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere stop climbing and start to steadily decline, thereby stopping catastrophic climate change—as quickly, safely, and equitably as possible. Drawdown Lift works to deepen collective understanding of the links between climate change solutions and poverty alleviation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries in Africa and South Asia. The Lift team seeks to help address both extreme poverty and climate change by collaboratively identifying, promoting, and advancing solutions designed to catalyze positive, equitable change. Though research in interconnected, overlapping areas of concern—reducing poverty and addressing climate impacts—should go together, work often exists in silos. Drawdown Lift works to break down disciplinary walls and find solutions that can address climate change and extreme poverty and lead to enhanced human well-being around the world. Drawdown Lift works alongside academic researchers, practitioners, and changemakers interested in achieving evidence-based, high-impact poverty alleviation and climate solutions worldwide. Project Drawdown’s work continues to highlight climate solutions that directly benefit human well-being—including Health and Education, Improved Clean Cookstoves, Indigenous Peoples’ Forest Tenure, Sustainable Intensification for Smallholders, and more. Drawdown Lift spotlights drawdown solutions and explores linkages among these solutions and their potential to improve lives and advance evidence of the nexus among climate mitigation solutions, poverty alleviation, and human well-being.
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2319521/04/2016 10:38Case studyEbA
The protected area, designated in 2008, is jointly managed by indigenous communities, traditional authorities, and several government biological and cultural conservation institutions. The sanctuary covers 10,200 ha of tropical rainforests and Andean forests ranging from between 700 and 3,300 metres above sea level. With several diseases such as malaria already increasing in some countries due to climate change, the protected area helps maintain the essential ecosystem services that enable people to adapt to changing conditions, such as the incidence of disease. The protected area also helps to maintain the integrity of the Andean and Amazonian ecosystems, which provide other essential services, including drinking water.

​Government of Colombia

South AmericaNational
Colombia
17/05/2022 16:50No presence informationStefan Dierks
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity buildingAgriculture, Ecosystems, Ecosystem-based adaptation
Roberto Felix
Colombia is one of many countries relying on locally collected traditional medicines as a major resource for meeting primary health care needs. With climate change expected to increase the incidence of many diseases, the project aimed to ensure the continued provision of forest natural resources to help people cope with such impacts, through creation of a protected area specifically to preserve medicinal flora.
NWPSearchableItem
  
2868930/10/2018 12:40Partner portal
Non-governmental organization (NGO)
Global
17/05/2022 16:35No presence informationStefan Dierks
Adaptation planning and practicesWater resources, Ecosystems
Technical document/reportGlobalLaura Kavanaugh

This document identifies the global water cycle as an integral part of the Earth/climate system and explores the interconnectedness between climate, the hydrological cycle and the Sustainable Development Goals. Within 'Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development' it clearly states that climate change is a major challenge, which could potentially undermine all sustainable development: “Understanding that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and its adverse impacts undermine the ability of all countries to achieve sustainable development." This indicates that addressing the causes of human-induced climate change is critical for the realisation of sustainable development and that it is essential to include this, in order to identify the interactions between the Sustainable Development Goals and their Targets.

NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2409821/04/2016 11:46Case studyPSI
Private sector

​The water optimizing solutions help growers to grow more crops per unit of water, while reducing crop stress during dry weather spells and during gaps in rainfall. For instance, field trials from the USA showed that Agrisure Artesian hybrid corn in combination with crop enhancement products, insect and weed management practices maximized yields when it rains, and increased yields up to 15% when it rains less. Further, the hybrid corn had provided greater yield stability in drought conditions or in fields with variable soil type and water holding capacities when compared to “non-hybrid” corn. 


To sum up, the water optimizing solutions offer proven season long drought protection and maximizes yield in any of the following environment:
  • Yield stability with higher percentage of available water converted into grain;
  • Under normal conditions no yield drag, in-fact maximized yield;
  • Under stress conditions greater yield than non-solution offers; and
  • Higher farm profitability.​
Syngenta AG
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, North America, South AmericaGlobal, National
All
Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners17/05/2022 16:35No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Financial support, Knowledge management, Science and research, Technology supportAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
Syngenta addresses climate change in agriculture sector by focusing on optimizing natural resource use efficiency – grow more from less. Water being an essential resource for agriculture, therefore finding ways and means to maximize water use efficiency is a top priority for the company. 

Syngenta water optimizing portfolio includes:
  • Drought tolerant seeds, such as Agrisure Artesian™ technology - with its range of high-performance, water-optimized corn hybrids; offer growers a new level of season-long drought protection;
  • Best farm management practices, such as integrated insect control, minimum tillage, crop rotations, cover cropping and others; enable growers to improve farm productivity;
  • Crop protection products, such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides; provide early season weed control in order to maximize crop yield potential right from the start by eliminating weed competition for water use and protecting crops from diseases and insects;
  • Crop enhancement tools, such as seed treatment and certain growth regulating fungicides; improve crop’s responses to abiotic stresses and play a key role in improving water use efficiency by protecting seeds and plant saplings from pests and microorganisms;
  • Farm extension services, such as incremental crop insurance, yield assurance, farmers education and training; and 
  • Safe guard growers against agronomic and weather challenges and enhance farm level capacity building to deal with bad weather.
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2321921/04/2016 10:39Case studyEbA
The economic benefits of ecosystem services are increasingly being quantified due to their impacts on hazard risk reduction. In Switzerland, for example, the benefits of protected forests are estimated between USD 2 to 3.5 billion per year.
17 percent of Swiss forests in the Alpine region are managed mainly for their protective function. By emphasizing the role of forests in disaster prevention within the Swiss forest policy at federal and local levels, the Government has prioritized certain ecosystem services at the expense of others (e.g. timber production).
EuropeNational
Switzerland
16/05/2022 19:04No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
ProAct Network (2008). The Role of Environmental Management and eco-engineering in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: https://www.unisdr.org/files/4148_em.report.annex1.pdf​
Dudley et al (2010); Natural Solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change, IUCN, WCPA, TNC, UNDP, WCS, The World Bank and WWF, Gland, Switzerland, Washington DC and New York, USA: https://www.iucn.org/content/natural-solutions-protected-areas-helping-people-cope-climate-change​​
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity buildingAgriculture, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Ecosystem-based adaptation
Roberto Felix
For many years, Switzerland has recognised the protective function of the forests in reducing the risk to people from avalanches and landslides, and designed management practices to enhance the resilience of the forests. With the effects of climate change in the European Alps expected to include increased erosion, landslides, avalanches, and flooding, the forests are expected to play an ongoing role in disaster prevention in the region.​
NWPSearchableItem
  
2322021/04/2016 10:39Case studyEbA
The outcomes achieved by the West Arnhem Fire project have potential application across fire-prone tropical Australia and other fire-prone savannas of the tropics. Fire management provides co-benefits, including climate change mitigation and economic benefits through employment. However, it requires repeated annual implementation in order to be successful.
National/public entity
Limiting wildfires in this way prevents the degradation of different plant communities and helps conserve environmental and cultural values in Arnhem Land. Greenhouse gas emissions are also reduced as studies have shown that early dry season fires emit less greenhouse gases per area affected than the more intense, late dry season fires. A partnership with the owners of a nearby Liquefied Natural Gas plant provides around US$1 million to the Aboriginal Traditional Owners of Western Arnhem Land to implement the annual prescribed burning, to offset an estimated 100,000 tonnes of CO2-equivalent per year.

​Northern Territory Government, Australia

Pacific/Oceania
Australia
16/05/2022 18:52No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
ProAct Network 2008. The Role of Environmental Management and eco-engineering in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: https://www.unisdr.org/files/4148_em.report.annex1.pdf​ 
Colls, A., Ash, N. and Ikkala, N (2009). Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a natural response to climate change. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN: https://www.iucn.org/content/ecosystem-based-adaptation-a-natural-response-climate-change​
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity buildingAgriculture, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Ecosystem-based adaptation
Roberto Felix
West Arnhem Land is a remote, tropical savanna region in Australia’s Northern Territory. Wildfires play an important role in the management of the ecosystem, although uncontrolled wildfires are a risk to adjacent land managers and globally significant rock art sites, and can threaten ecosystems, overwhelming their adaptive defences. Climate change impacts are expected to increase the size, intensity, and frequency of wildfires in Australia, and extend the fire season. The intervention involves prescribed fire management to avoid seasonally occurring disastrous wildfires, in partnership with the local Aboriginal people who manage parts of Arnhem Land in this way, resulting in a low incidence of devastating wildfires.
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2553013/05/2016 12:08Case studyLocal, indigenous and traditional knowledge
The consequences of climate change have caused an increase in extreme climatic events such as floods drought, erratic rainfall, and cyclone among others. These have further negative implications on water availability, agricultural production, and food security in the context of project research sites. The agrarian households that depended on the agriculture sector for their livelihoods are vulnerable to the impact of climate change. To adapt to extreme events, communities adopted measures to manage resources, harness opportunity from technology, and practices traditional and indigenous knowledge. The role of government and external agencies has been found to be vital for empowering local people and strengthening local institutions in process of adapting to climate change. 

A few key findings and outcomes from some of the individual case studies are highlighted below: 

Bangladesh
In Bangladesh, the study revealed that the increasing trend of climate change particularly temperature and erratic rainfall patterns, and anthropogenic activities (like deforestation) could be the reasons for decreasing the natural resources, particularly forests. The community people have taken some adaptation measures like changing the planting time, using new technologies, etc. However, the community strongly opined that the concerned authorities should take appropriate measures like construction of water reservoirs, afforestation through community approach/partnership, development of pest and disease resistant variety, etc. These might have positive benefits to combat the impacts of climate change to a considerable extent and creating their better livelihood opportunities. 

Nepal 
In Nepal, rural communities are highly dependent on forest products for their livelihood. The effect of climate change can be seen in the form of less forest product availability for harvesting. Institutions play a vital role in climate change adaptation and enhance the capacity of local people to cope with the extremes. The success of all the adaptation practices depends on the arrangement of institutions and performance. Even the government also recognized the role of local communities in designing and implementing an ecosystem-based adaptation approach. 

Thailand
In Thailand, it has been realized that the climate is changing and this has had an impact on the cropping system, water availability, and traditional harvesting pattern from the forest. Direct impacts from changing climate on crop yield and natural resources are still not noticed well but reported that such impacts are difficult to distinguish from effects due to deforestation and land-use change. Local wisdom and traditional knowledge could be useful to help to respond to environmental changes. However, this has been lost by the introduction of modern technology in some cases. Local research to compile and conserve traditional wisdom is critical for the community and province to strengthen their capacity to adapt and respond to future environmental impacts, including climate change. 

Vietnam
In Vietnam, in order to adapt to climate change, local people have been changing their agriculture activities, number of livestock rearing, cultivation techniques, crop composition, vaccination, pest and disease prevention measurement and apply new techniques. Most of the adaptation activities of local people toward climate change are from their own experiences or learning from their individual practices. There were no any programmes from the government/local authorities to help local people to adapt to climate change. The focus of the government in the coastal area where the impacts of the climate changes are much more serious.
Regional center/network/initiative
The major outputs from the project were:
  1. Documented traditional knowledge of rural people in relation to climate change adaptation, which will contribute to policy development based on the context of individual project partner countries.
  2. A training manual on climate change and adaptation (in Nepali) has been published for the climate change trainer to help them train rural villagers, community forest users, farmers, teachers, and students.
  3. A special edition of the peer-reviewed Journal of Forestry and Livelihood on climate change adaption has been published including four papers from current APN research and other four papers from different scientists (SEE https://forestaction.org​​).
AsiaNational
Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners16/05/2022 18:29No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Paudel, N. S., Khatri, D. B., Ojha, H., Karki, R., & Gurung, N. (2013). Integrating Climate Change Adaptation with Local Development: Exploring Institutional Options. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 11(1), 1–13. Retrieved from: https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JFL/article/view/8606​​
Adaptation planning and practices, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Institutional arrangements, Socio-economic data and informationAgriculture, Food security, Biodiversity, Ecosystem-based adaptation
Roberto Felix
This project was undertaken in the rural agrarian villages dependent on the forest resources of Bangladesh, Nepal, Thailand, and Viet Nam, with a view to understanding and documenting the trend of climate change as well as the adaptation measures to cope with the adverse situations that might arise in the near future. The study was accomplished through an intensive survey of households in each country and analyses of long-term (nearly 30 years) meteorological databases. 

The results exhibited that resources, particularly natural resources and agriculture has been either reduced or experienced pattern changes. Increasing trends of climate change along with anthropogenic activities are the main reasons for the decreasing natural resources and livelihood options of the communities. The results of the analysis of the long-term climatic database particularly the changing trend of temperature and rainfall has been strongly supported by perceptions/opinions of the community people. 

In the face of challenges of climate change and livelihoods, communities have strongly suggested undertaking some new adaptation measures such as the construction of water reservoirs, strengthening aforestation programmes through community approaches, development of strong institutional mechanisms, the introduction of pest- and disease-resistant varieties, supply of high-quality planting materials, etc., for conservation of resources and their better livelihoods, which need strong public and private support.
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2319021/04/2016 10:38Case studyEbA
The factors leading to Rwanda’s 2004 electricity crisis and the multiple actions taken by the government in response offer a number of lessons for energy security and for adaptation decision making. 

One of these lessons is the value of an integrated approach to solving complex problems. Restoring the Rugezi-Bulera-Ruhondo watershed required interlinked efforts to address ecological, social, economic, and cultural issues, which were complemented by the electricity sector’s efforts to improve its performance and management. The cooperation of ministries and actors on the national, district, and local levels also was important. 

Although Rwanda’s policies and actions were not explicitly designed to do so, improving the health and function of the Rugezi-Bulera-Ruhondo watershed should make the country more resilient to climate change. Land use management practices that minimize soil erosion and protect sensitive ecosystems often are critical to reducing vulnerability to climate shocks and stresses. 

Finally, this case study points to the potential for trade-offs between short- and long-term adaptation goals, as well as the need for intermediary measures to mitigate adverse short-term impacts on local populations.​
National/public entity
The combination of integrated policy interventions and measures taken to restore the wetlands resulted in the return of the hydropower station to full operational capacity. The restoration of the wetlands provided alternative livelihood options, including fishing, which had been lost due to the degradation of the ecosystem. Activities to support local communities to changing water regimes, and helping to diversify livelihoods, have increased the resiliency of people climatic changes.

The impact of efforts to restore the Rugezi-Bulera-Ruhondo watershed on the local population is a more difficult question. Initially, many local livelihoods were adversely affected as households lost access to the land for cultivation. Since this time, however, the restoration efforts appear to have started to provide some benefits. Radical terracing and agroforestry activities have increased crop productivity; grasses planted on managed terraces and lake banks are providing fodder for livestock; flora and fauna have increased in the Rugezi wetlands; and ecotourists are now visiting the area. The full consequences of the watershed restoration efforts on local people will only become clear over time.​

​Government of Rwanda

Africa
Rwanda
16/05/2022 18:11No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
WRI 2011: World Resources Report Case Study. World Resources Report 2010-2011, Washington DC​: https://www.wri.org/research/world-resources-report-2010-2011​
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity buildingWater resources, Ecosystems, Ecosystem-based adaptation
Roberto Felix
In the area of northern Rwanda, surrounding the Rugezi wetlands, high dependence on agricultural activities for livelihoods, as well as the forests to supply wood fuel, contributed to land degradation within the watershed. In 2003-04, Rwanda experienced a major electricity—and as a result, economic—crisis. This was attributed to water shortages in the main reservoir supplying the generating stations, due to degradation and poor management of the surrounding watersheds, reduced rainfall, and additional factors including poor maintenance of the infrastructure. 

Given uncertainty surrounding the predicted impacts on the climate as a result of climate change, a programme of activities to restore the degraded Rugezi-Bulera-Ruhondo watershed was initiated. This aimed to build resiliency into the hydroelectric system to enable it to adapt to either future increases or decreases in precipitation in the future.
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2407721/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector
Naturally Advanced Technologies Inc.
North AmericaGlobal
Canada
16/05/2022 17:41No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Turn Climate Change Risk Into Business Opportunity (WRI Insights): http://www.wri.org/blog/2011/07/turn-climate-change-risk-business-opportunity
Science and research, Technology supportAgriculture, Food security, Biodiversity
Roberto Felix
The dramatic price surges in cotton or sugar demonstrate how climate instability contributes to market risks. Prices for such commodities hit 30-year highs in 2011, as drought ravaged cotton crops in Texas, and floods and a cyclone inundated sugarcane in Australia. 

These price shocks reverberate throughout the supply chains of interdependent global markets, sending costs higher for companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. and Hanesbrands Inc., which rely heavily on cotton. 

Naturally Advanced Technologies Inc. (NAT), based in Vancouver, British Colombia, is committed to unlocking the potential of renewable and environmentally sustainable biomass resources from flax, hemp and other bast fibers. 

NAT, through its wholly owned subsidiary CRAiLAR® Fiber Technologies Inc. and in collaboration with Canada's National Research Council and Alberta Innovates - Technologies Futures, has developed proprietary technology to process bast fibers such as flax and hemp, cellulose pulp, and the resulting by-products. CRAiLAR® technology offers a cost-effective, environmentally sustainable processing solution expected to result in products with increased performance characteristics applicable to the textile, energy, composite materials, and auto, marine and aerospace industries. 

NAT is partnering with major cotton customers to demonstrate that these cheaper, more resilient fibers can better withstand climate variability and are viable replacements for cotton.
NWPSearchableItem
  
2406221/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector

An important benefit of tailored weather warning systems for railways infrastructure managers is the increased prewarning time for different kinds of natural hazards which can be used for better preparation and more efficient response. Another aspect is improved management of personnel and machinery. Personnel costs can be saved by optimising disposition well in advance and by means of predefined response plans. Costs can also be saved on equipment rental since it is the more expensive the shorter the notice. Further cost savings can be achieved due to shorter durations of speed restrictions and line closures since warnings and following clearances can be timed and localised much more accurately.​

Since situations in the future which are similar to those already experienced in the past can be handled more efficiently, the planning options for response measures to severe weather events are significantly improved over time. This capacity building process should be actively managed.

Austrian Federal Railways
Europe
Austria
16/05/2022 17:07No presence informationNicholas Hamp-AdamsImpact assessment, Science and researchDisaster risk reduction, Infrastructure, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
A dedicated weather information and weather warning system have been developed and implemented by ÖBB, Austria’s national rail service. Preparative work included the installation of additional weather stations for better spatial coverage, the development of regional meteorological models, GIS-based overlay of railway tracks and meteorological data as well as GIS-based delineation of flood risk.

The InfraWeather online portal gives access to general weather information, forecasts as well as weather warnings. A map shown on the user interface gives an overview of the Austrian railroad system with the most important weather information. With the new forecast models and radar techniques, weather extremes can be forecasted on a scale of 10 km, partly even lower. This is possible due to the definition of natural areas, as units with similar natural conditions. These are meteorological divides, crests, valleys, etc. 

The forecast of floods integrates the water level of the rivers and the meteorological data so that the warnings can be sent 12 hours in advance. The snowfall forecast includes the amount of snowfall in the next 24 to 72 hours for each warning point. InfraWeather has a dedicated operational warning service, which provides also real-time severe weather warnings. Extreme weather events covered by the warning system are thunderstorms, flood events, and heavy snowfall. The forecast of disastrous thunderstorms is provided by using ‘nowcasting’ techniques, where the track of thunderstorms can be forecasted 20 - 60 minutes in advance.
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2406721/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector

​Rio Tinto concluded from these studies that regions in which it operates will experience changed climate regimes. In the near term the changes are minimal, but are expected to increase over the longer term. Consequent impacts to its businesses are likely to occur gradually, allowing time for operations to learn and adapt. The work also indicated that building and engineering codes and standards have been slow to incorporate climate change risks. The studies indicated that, properly applied, current standards would provide adequate protection to weather events and so major upgrades of existing structures would not be required in the short to medium term. Over the longer term, Rio Tinto’s exposure to climate risk is likely to vary by location. North American assets, for example, appear less vulnerable than those in the southern Hemisphere, where increased intensity of cyclones and drier conditions are both predicted.

This work is now being followed up with very detailed site assessments for many of Rio Tinto’s higher priority sites. The sites have been selected based on their remaining life, prospective developments and expansions, and their location in climate sensitive parts of the world. The assessments are underpinned by high resolution climate modeling (down to 20 kilometer by 20 kilometer grids), which are able to provide some indication of changes in cyclonic activity and topographic effects.

Rio Tinto has learned much about climate-related impacts. The chief issues are about water: either having too much (floods) or too little (drought). While Rio Tinto does not ascribe any individual weather event to climate change, it believes the more extreme events it experiences could occur more frequently. In addition, Rio Tinto is concerned with reports that climate change will induce deeper and/or more frequent droughts. Partly as a result, it has developed a strong water strategy to respond to various aspects of droughts and floods.​

Rio Tinto
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South America
Australia
16/05/2022 16:27No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Case Studies and Tools: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Business Adaptation to Climate Change (Network for Business Sustainability): 
Adapting to Climate Change: A Business Approach (Pew Center on Global Climate Change): http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2008/04/16/adapting-to-climate-change-a-business-approach
Impact assessment, Science and researchWater resources, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
Rio Tinto is a leading international mining group, whose major products include iron ore, aluminum, copper, diamonds, energy products, gold, and industrial minerals. Its activities span the world but are strongly represented in Australia, North America and Europe. 

Rio Tinto’s chief climate change concerns are about water: either having too much (floods) or too little (drought). While Rio Tinto does not ascribe any individual weather event to climate change, it believes the more extreme events it experiences could occur more frequently. In addition, Rio Tinto is concerned with reports that climate change will induce deeper and/or more frequent droughts. Partly as a result, it has developed a strong water strategy to respond to various aspects of droughts and floods. 

Rio Tinto’s interest in adaptation was first motivated by an internal climate change risk assessment undertaken in 2002. Rio Tinto was already engaged in climate change policy and emissions abatement work, and an evaluation of potential climate impacts seemed a natural extension. The company’s first adaptation study was a review using the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report (TAR), knowledge of Rio Tinto operations, and phone interviews with site managers to identify the types of climatic variables that would be important to Rio Tinto’s diverse businesses. The study looked at actual impacts of weather events and predicted climate changes described by the TAR. The order of magnitude scoping study concluded that— broadly defined— changes in climate could be important and should be considered more deeply. 

Rio Tinto followed up with a second study that focused on the implications of climatic changes at a finer spatial detail using data provided by the Hadley Center for Climate Change in the UK. This study demonstrated how climate variables might change over the next 25 to 50 years in the geographic regions where Rio Tinto has mining interests, or relies on supporting infrastructure and services, such as electricity supply, water, shipping lanes, and roads. 

Rio Tinto concluded from these studies that regions in which it operates will experience changed climate regimes. In the near term the changes are minimal, but are expected to increase over the longer term. Consequent impacts to its businesses are likely to occur gradually, allowing time for operations to learn and adapt. 

Rio Tinto has also undertaken very detailed site assessments for many of its higher priority sites. The sites have been selected based on their remaining life, prospective developments and expansions, and their location in climate sensitive parts of the world. The assessments are underpinned by high-resolution climate modeling (down to 20 kilometer by 20 kilometer grids), which are able to provide some indication of changes in cyclonic activity and topographic effects. 

Rio Tinto has experienced three headline weather events over the past few years in Australia (flooding and droughts) that have reinforced the need for the company’s adaptation work.
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2407521/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector

​Travelers has also introduced pricing strategies to encourage environmentally responsible behavior. This includes providing discounts on car insurance for drivers of hybrid-electric automobiles and enhanced coverage for owners of “green” commercial buildings. These products are designed to respond to the evolving needs of customers and also recognize the potential “halo effect” in which adopters of climate-change mitigation technologies are viewed as low-risk customers. While there is not yet enough data for clear actuarial support, Travelers’ internal market data indicates that there is a correlation between risk-averse and environmentally responsible behaviors. Thus, those who purchase a hybrid-electric car are also likely to be safer drivers. Similarly, owners or builders of energy-efficient or “green” buildings may be more likely to detect and remedy risk-related issues, such as the overall integrity of the building or the safety and maintenance of equipment and systems. Green buildings are also typically newer and less prone to the risks presented by older buildings.​

Underlining all of Travelers’ actions on climate change is the notion that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. The company would much rather help its customers be prepared for events, thereby minimizing or avoiding potential losses, than have them suffer the monetary and non-monetary impact of a severe loss. Travelers recognizes that climate risks are evolving and the company is continuing to monitor and investigate these risks in order to proactively and appropriately adapt its products and services strategies to help its customers.​
The Travelers Companies, Inc.
Europe, North America
United States of America
16/05/2022 16:10No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adapting to Climate Change: A Business Approach (Pew Center on Global Climate Change): http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2008/04/16/adapting-to-climate-change-a-business-approach
Education and training, Financial support, Impact assessment, Science and researchCoastal areas/zones, Disaster risk reduction, Infrastructure, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
The Travelers Companies, Inc. is one of the largest providers of personal and commercial property and casualty insurance products in the United States, with headquarters in St. Paul, Minnesota, and representatives in every U.S. state, Canada, Ireland, and the U.K. 

Travelers has consistently focused on the impact of changing climatic conditions in order to provide insurance protection that both addresses customer needs and achieves internal financial objectives. However, following the severe 2004 and 2005 Atlantic hurricane seasons, the company determined that a more cohesive and integrated approach to climate risk was needed. Travelers formed a number of new internal working groups and expanded the roles of existing groups to address exposure and risk associated with climate change. 

Travelers is engaged in initiatives designed to reduce exposures to extreme weather events for itself and its customers. These actions include providing information and price incentives for insured parties to help mitigate personal and commercial losses due to extreme weather events, reassessing its exposure to risk because of changes in climate, and modifying pricing strategies and policy terms and conditions to reflect updated assessments of current and future risks. 

Specific actions that Travelers has taken to adapt to climate change include:
  • Reassessing coastal underwriting practices. The definition of coastal areas has been expanded to include counties farther inland than previously considered and contractual terms of coverage now include more sharing of responsibility for both households and businesses. In general, coastal customers now assume a greater share of risk than before, providing greater incentives for them to engage in loss control and adaptation activities.
  • Updating catastrophe modeling. Travelers and other insurance companies utilize current modeling techniques to help predict and manage potential catastrophic losses. Estimates of losses in severe weather scenarios are rising due to the anticipation of more frequent and severe hurricanes, growth in coastal development, and rising costs to repair damaged property after a severe event.
  • Offering “Risk Control” services. Travelers Risk Control Services Group provides assistance with a range of loss mitigation and adaptation techniques. These include monitoring building code standards and regulations in support of building resiliency, providing assistance in disaster preparedness planning, and delivering business continuity training.
  • Redesigning pricing. Pricing strategies for commercial and personal customers take into account differences such as building age, construction, and loss mitigation efforts, which affect likely losses during extreme weather events due to changes in building codes over time. Travelers continues to evaluate and enhance its products through the development of incentives to homeowners and commercial customers who install storm resistant building components such as shutters or fortified roofs that are better able to withstand severe weather events.
  • Engaging in community and government outreach. Travelers engages in industry and broad-based efforts to encourage disaster awareness and preparedness among homeowners and commercial customers. These efforts also focus on providing information to governmental organizations about the benefits of long-term loss mitigation strategies. These include the adoption and enforcement of more robust building codes, enhanced land-use planning, and hurricane preparedness.
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2876615/04/2019 12:19Case studyPartner portal
Private sector
Acclimatise
AsiaLocal, National, Regional, Subregional
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector16/05/2022 10:34No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement
Louis Pille-Schneider
ACT (Action on Climate Today) is working to reduce the effects of climate change in South Asia. The initiative is funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and managed by Oxford Policy Management (OPM). South Asia is being seriously affected by climate change, and the impact will only get worse as time goes on. By 2050, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that higher temperatures and greater temperature extremes will hit the region. 

Furthermore, rainfall is likely to become more erratic, with some areas receiving more than they do now and others suffering more frequent and serious droughts. ​ Over the same period, the population of the region is expected to expand from 1.6 to 2.2 billion. Coupled with rapid economic growth and urbanization - and the effects of climate change - this will be a great challenge to governments seeking sustainable development for their citizens.​

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2892222/09/2020 09:25Case study
UN and affiliated organization
State of the art approaches and intensive analysis were used to understand the flood behaviour of Dukniskhevi River. In collaboration with the NDE of Georgia and the TA implementor (HYDROC GmbH), the CTCN TA contributed through: 
  1. Modelling of flooding scenarios (hydrological & hydraulic modelling and climate change impact assessment)
  2. Mapping of flood hazard
  3. Identification of adaptation and flood mitigation measures
  4. Training for enhancing capacity of government officials and relevant stakeholders
EuropeLocal
Georgia
Policy makers16/05/2022 10:02No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Technology supportWater resources
crmmocservices
Flash floods and mudflows occurring on small rivers as a result of heavy rains impact various parts of Tbilisi, causing heavy damage and/or human casualties. Georgia requested the UN Climate Change Centre and Network (CTCN) for technical assistance in this regard in order to determine appropriate actions to prevent disastrous consequences of possible floods of the Dukniskhevi River within Tbilisi, as part of climate change adaptation. 

The technical assistance involved technology transfer for flood hazard mapping, hydrological modelling, and flood forecasting. This was meant to advance the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) with an aim of improving the preparedness and adaptive capacity through developing climate-resilient practices that reduce the vulnerability of highly exposed communities.

Here, you will find a summary of the assistance entailed: 
1942NWPSearchableItemgargr@un.orgTechnical document/report
  
2915506/08/2021 16:16Case study
  • ​​The limitation of REDD+’s contribution to poverty alleviation in the Yucatan Peninsula is that it is not the local poor who are causing carbon emissions, but primarily better-off groups. Hence it is probable that compensation for reduced emissions will in the first instance target the less poor, thus increasing income gaps between the poor and better-off groups. 
  • An initial condition to promote a pro-poor approach to benefit sharing is to involve vulnerable groups in this planning process. REDD+ interventions should include individuals, households, and collective groups.
  • Activities increasing the productivity of subsistence farming without increasing forest degradation could benefit a large number of the relatively poor.​
  • Enhanced local management and governance would benefit all, including the poor.
  • Subsidies focusing on households (rather than collectively through representatives of local communities, as it is common practice in some programmes) and not requiring land rights (as is the case with many agricultural subsidies) can benefit poorer groups more effectively.
Civil society
The information generated can be used as “cross-reference” tools for the analysis and the design of pro-poor interventions that can be replicated and adapted to a specific condition. A pro-poor approach implies that REDD+ benefits flow to both the poorer and the better-off groups of rural areas. If REDD+ activities are to be pro-poor they would have to improve productivity, technology transfer, and access to markets for poorer groups. These actions will add economic value to sustainable practices allowing reinvestment and recapitalization. 

The preparation of climate-effective land use plans can be particularly beneficial for the poor if they receive access to land, if collective parcels are defined or if they are included in economic activities. The household is the smallest and most critical economic organizational unit in rural economies where decisions on how to allocate labor and other resources are made; it is also the primary institution and safety network in rural economies, particularly for the poor. It will be difficult for REDD+ to prevent long-term decapitalis​ation linked to land sales given its voluntary nature and large opportunity costs. Nevertheless, strengthening social capital at the household scale and financing sustainable development plans may reduce this process, particularly if REDD+ is able to promote the inclusion of social and environmental values and costs in supply chains and industries, the financial sector, and consumer behavior.
International Union for Conservation of Nature
North AmericaSubregional
Mexico
Academics and scientists, Policy makers, Practitioners16/05/2022 09:10No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Balderas Torres, A., Skutsch, M. and de los Rios Ibarra, E. (2020). Pro-poor analysis of REDD+ activities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Technical Series: Forest Governance and Economics, No. 8. San Jose, Costa Rica: IUCN and CIGA. xvii + 125pp. Available at: https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/49249
Adaptation planning and practices, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Science and research, Stakeholder involvementAgriculture, Biodiversity
crmmocservices
The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential for pro-poor REDD+ benefit sharing in the region known as Yucatan Peninsula (comprising the states of Campeche, Quintana Roo and Yucatan) in Mexico, considering the prevalent drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and the possible alternatives to address them, and assessing the impacts of each of these strategies on different local social groups. The evaluation of these impacts is based on a brief description of the livelihoods and living standards of different social groups of rural communities. The analyses presented here consider the identification of local poorer groups and their prototypical involvement in the main drivers of emissions and potential engagement in REDD+ activities. 
2179NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2915812/08/2021 15:06Case study
NDCs form a key component of global and national level climate change actions. Being developing countries with low GHG emissions, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka must focus on effective implementation of NDCs on adaptation and loss and damage. 

However, it is important to identify gaps and needs at the country level for the implementation of these actions. Initiatives such as policy gaps and needs analysis, interlinking with the 2020 NDC review process present opportunities for collaboration in addressing gaps and needs identified, as well as identifying alignment and synergies among key processes such as NDCs, NAPs, SDGs and the Sendai Framework are vital. 

Developing countries share common capacity gaps and needs, and also possess a wealth of information and experiences which could provide space for enhancing regional capacity and knowledge on the implementation of NDCs on adaptation and loss and damage. The research will further form the baseline for implementing capacity building activities on assessing climate risks, developing gender-responsive policies, plans and activities, enhancing the institutional and coordination mechanism at national and sub-national level for formulating and implementing adaptation plans and processes, and integrating climate change adaptation to the country’s development processes.
Civil society
There are several persistent themes that manifest as either needs or constraints to the successful implementation of adaptation and loss and damage for NDCs in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. 

Gaps in policies and laws, institutions and coordination, capacities and awareness, finance and technology, as well as socioeconomic and other factors have all emerged as common for the implementation of NDCs in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Among the gaps and needs that have been identified as common to all are the need for enhanced institutional and coordination mechanisms for NDC implementation, and the need for developing synergies between existing developmental processes. 

Key stakeholders shared that the nonexistence of a mandate or a law that facilitates the implementation of NDCs has functioned as a cause for ineffective and uncoordinated actions. All three countries have also demonstrated the need for an MRV process for the implementation of NDCs on adaptation and loss and damage as well as the need for budget tagging, and sharing of the progress of NDC action in a publicly accessible system. Capacity gaps have been highlighted related to financial, technology, and technical expertise related to adaptation and loss and damage sectors. 

The government sector capacity building for developing project proposals to mobilise funding for adaptation and loss and damage actions, identification and application of suitable technologies, and the need for key expertise on NDC actions are among some of the capacities that needed to be shared by the participants of the research. Access to research, knowledge, lessons learnt has also been cited as a gap. The need to share scientific and evidence-based climate adaptation data, information and research have been noted. In addressing this gap and need, the research has developed an adaptation and resilience knowledge portal, that aims to provide needed information and research findings with different stakeholders working on NDCs on adaptation and loss and damage. 

A need for regional collaboration for providing technical expertise and sharing of NDC progress was also noted. Development of common actions for adaptation and loss and damage related issues, as well as mobilising of climate finance at a regional level are options that remain to be explored to facilitate the effective implementation of adaptation and loss and damage NDCs. 

Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka are all faced with legal and policy gaps for which current projects have been launched to remedy them. All three countries together with the relevant institutions are working towards developing a comprehensive framework to battle climate change. 

Thus, this research suggests some general recommendations for all three countries that would help in reaching out to their climate goals. All three countries do not have legislative enactments on climate change. Adopting legislation on climate change and creating a coordination mechanism which has a mandate to streamline the domestic, legal and policy framework to suit the country’s international climate change commitments would largely contribute to addressing institutional gaps as discussed above. Further, establishing an effective coordination mechanism between the relevant line ministries working on climate change in the formulation, implementation and at the stage of Monitoring and Evaluation would expedite the action plans laid down in the NDCs. 

Coordination issues among stakeholders have caused some of the states to have a multiplicity of laws and policies in the same ministerial sectors causing inconvenience especially to the rural community and for the people who are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Improving the coordination mechanism by focusing on capacity building of the several stakeholders involved in the process would provide great support to in achieving climate goals. 

 A number of institutions, ministries and planning authorities have failed to give due recognition to climate change actions in the process of implementing climate change actions. Improving the capacity of institutions for the integration of climate change action into their planning processes would help to streamline the proposed action plans through NDCs. Climate adaptation policies designed by implementing agencies have recognized the importance of climate change actions. Nevertheless, several institutions in all three countries have failed to address this need. As per the Paris Agreement integrating climate change action at all levels, national and regional, through participatory decision-making processes should be given due recognition. 

Stakeholder consultations revealed that several NDC sectors lack awareness on climate change policies. Awareness and capacity building of all relevant stakeholders with regard to climate change policies and laws to support effective integration processes would assist in the process of implementing a comprehensive legislative framework on climate change of all three countries. 

Carrying out an analysis and review of policy and legal framework to identify gaps and scope for development and modification where necessary would help determine the progress of the NDCs and it will also provide a platform to plan out and develop effective NDCs for the future. 

Integrating both SDGs and international DRR processes and mechanisms such as the WIM, the Sendai Framework, or the InsuResilience Global Partnership into NDC implementation could create strong synergies or co-benefits for both sides.

Sustainable development and climate adaptation action provide an opportunity to work together and achieve common goals and targets. 

SLYCAN Trust
AsiaNational, Regional
Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka
Academics and scientists, Policy makers, Practitioners16/05/2022 08:57No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Please see the knowledge product and the country papers for detailed references and methodology.
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Communication and outreach/awareness, Financial support, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Stakeholder involvement, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Health, Adaptation finance, Disaster risk reduction, Energy, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Gender, Urban resilience, Tourism
crmmocservices
This research paper has been prepared based on legal and policy analysis relevant to the NDC sectors on adaptation and loss and damage in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, and interlinked with a consultative process through interviews and sectoral- and national-level multi-stakeholder consultations. This includes a national workshop in each country, a regional workshop and fourteen consultations organised in Sri Lanka, two consultations in Bangladesh, two consultations in Nepal, five webinars, and a series of recorded expert interviews. The workshops and consultations had a total of 350 participants and were held in cooperation with government entities under the NDC review process, and focused on different NDC adaptation and loss and damage sectors and areas of gaps and needs. ​

Key national documents on climate change, sustainable development, disaster risk management and disaster risk reduction, including the (I)NDCs, National Adaptation Programmes of Action, climate change policies, national communications to the UNFCCC, Sri Lanka’s National Adaptation Plan, and relevant sectoral policies were reviewed during the research. 

The findings of this research were validated through the above-mentioned consultation meetings and workshops. Additionally, the final research product has been prepared, taking into consideration the feedback and comments received from the meetings and workshops. Following the finalization of the national research paper, the findings were incorporated to a regional comparative study based on the country studies, and with additional expert comments through regional expert interviews, and inputs received through the regional workshop. 

All three countries have included adaptation and loss and damage components in their NDCs. For adaptation, food security (mainly agriculture) and ecosystems are the major shared priorities, and water resources, coastal zone management, and urban areas are of high importance as well. 

Finally, loss and damage is a priority sector for Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka alike. Means of implementation and financial support are included in the Sri Lankan and Bangladesh NDCs while Nepal has recognised knowledge management as another area of focus in its NDCs. Efforts under this area mainly consist of the generation and dissemination of climate related knowledge carried out by the Climate Change Knowledge Management Centre, exclusively established for that purpose. 

Action under the above areas have been developed by each country according to the individual needs, targets and risks facing each, in terms of all three being developing countries. Also, their policies reflect common traits such as climate sensitive development policies, the need to diversify energy mixes and the demand for technical and financial assistance in implementing the actions in the NDCs.

As part of the international global community, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh are committed to meeting the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement. The effective, efficient and timely delivery of NDCs play a determining role in this regard, hence the concerted effort by countries to achieve their set targets on both mitigation and adaptation. Thus, implementing these recommended measures will not only facilitate the achievement of each country’s NDC targets but also contribute towards the betterment of international climate action. Addressing the shared gaps, needs, and constraints of Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka can benefit from regional cooperation and the exchange of experiences and lessons learned. Implementing the NDCs of these three countries in an effective manner is vital to prepare for the impacts of climate change and build resilient, sustainable societies, economies, and ecosystems. 

 
2183NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2915917/08/2021 09:56Case study
Good practices in both countries included: 
  • community involvement in water resource management;
  • prioritizing holistic approaches in adaptation projects;
  • institutionalizing financial mechanisms for ecosystem-based adaptation. 
These lessons learned were detailed in a summary for policymakers and were presented to policymakers by project partners at the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
Civil society
Common challenges and good practices were identified through a comparative analysis between Nepal and Perú. Across the two countries, the following strained efforts to implement ecosystem-based adaptation projects and promote effective water management practices: 
  • political processes;
  • finance;
  • sector siloing;
  • top-down implementation;
  • one-size-fits-all approaches.​
Yale University
Asia, South AmericaNational, Regional
Nepal; Peru
Policy makers, Practitioners16/05/2022 08:44No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Adaptation planning and practicesWater resources, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
crmmocservices
Solutions to the climate crisis that centers on natural ecosystems and people are gaining traction around the world. For decades, nature-based solutions have been pursued to mitigate climate change and adapt to climate change impacts. Recently, governments and climate advocates have turned to the growing field of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) as a part of an overall strategy to combat the negative impacts of climate change. As a subset of the broader field of nature-based solutions, EbA helps people adapt to the impacts of climate change through conservation, sustainable management, and restoration of ecosystems. 

EbA solutions highlight the importance of ecosystem services and biodiversity in reducing the vulnerability of communities to the climate crisis. By improving ecosystem health to adapt to climate change, EbA solutions are more sustainable over the long term and often more cost-effective than stand-alone grey infrastructure solutions, which utilize human-made materials like cement to adapt to climate impacts. Hybrid approaches, or green-grey infrastructure – combining traditional engineered approaches with ecosystem-based infrastructure – provide combined adaptation benefits for communities. EbA practices can provide social, economic, climatic, and environmental benefits to local communities. Implementing EbA solutions in mountain regions is important because of the unique climate risk these areas face. Enhancing natural systems will allow these regions to adapt to these risks while ensuring the resilience of water resources.​

This case study aims to advance knowledge on traditional water resource management and climate change adaptation planning. Interviews with policymakers and government representatives, civil society representatives, and local community members in Nepal and Perú were conducted to understand the knowledge exchange around water adaptation practices and technologies between local communities and state and national actors through the lens of ecosystem-based adaptation. This study assessed the prioritization of ecosystem-based adaptation in the Andean and Hindu Kush Himalayan regions and the role of sustainable economic development. This analysis also highlights differences between adaptation planning implementation in practice and high-level policies on climate change adaptation, including National Adaptation Plans (NAPs).
2184NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2917531/08/2021 09:16Case study
 ​Good practices: 
  • Ensure risk identification and adaptation planning is an iterative process with continuous updates to reflect changing conditions and priorities. 
  • Integrate insights from VRAs into adaptation planning at the national level 
  • Use VRA findings to quantify potential Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) targets for the agriculture sectors. 
Lessons learned: 
  • Access to data to assess specific indicators is key 
  • Ground-truthing of computed results is important 
  • Field research is necessary to identify suitable adaptation options 
  • Different sectors require tailored risk and vulnerability and risk assessment methodologies
UN and affiliated organization
 Outcome-Vulnerability assessments: 
  • VRAs were conducted for the crops, livestock and aquaculture sectors and the water resources sector to inform the design of sector-specific measures for Viet Nam’s NAP. The studies adopted similar approaches to prepare vulnerability indices based on an assessment of more than 80 indicators, including 7 climate change exposure indicators, 25 climate change sensitivity indicators and 18 climate change adaptive indicators for crops, livestock and aquaculture, as well as 30 indicators for water resources infrastructure. 
  • Based on climatic, socio-economic and agricultural data, a unique vulnerability index (VI) was developed for 6 crops (rice, maize, sugarcane, coffee, fruits, cassava), 5 livestock (pigs, poultry, cattle, buffaloes, dairy), and 2 aquaculture varieties (fish, shrimp). In addition, a VI was developed for 53 813 water resources infrastructure assets (8 594 reservoirs, 9 108 pumping stations, 11 916 weirs, 18 874 canals and 5 428 sluices). 
  • The aggregated climate VIs allow for better targeting of adaptation measures by providing a spatially explicit overview of the climate risk faced by each sector at district level. The VIs show that the most vulnerable regions by sector are the Northern Central Coastal Region (NCR) (for crops and aquaculture sectors), the Southeast Region (SER) (for aquaculture), the Mekong River Delta (MRD) (for aquaculture and crops), the Northern West Mountainous Region (NWM) (for crops), and the Red River Delta (RRD) (for livestock).​
  • The VRA of water resources infrastructure shows the VIs and measures the overall risk to specific infrastructure assets. Over 36 percent of sampled reservoirs were classified to be very highly or highly vulnerable to climate change and almost 57 percent of pumping stations assessed were classified to be of very high or high vulnerability. 
Outcome - Cost benefit analysis: 
  • ​Adaptation measures to address the climate risks were identified for each sector and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted. Together with the VIs, the outcomes of the CBA were used to prioritise potentially promising adaptation measures in the crops, aquaculture, and livestock sectors such as rice intensification and integrated cassava and peanut cultivation. In the water resources sector, the CBA helped prioritise infrastructure assets where adaptation measures would both improve their resilience to climate change and minimise potential climate change impacts on society.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
AsiaNational, Regional
Viet Nam
Academics and scientists, Policy makers, Practitioners16/05/2022 08:26No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Please refer to the references mentioned in the case study
Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Water resources
crmmocservices
The “Vulnerability and risk assessments of agriculture sectors in Viet Nam” was conducted in Viet Nam, a country considered to be among the most vulnerable countries to climate change with its agriculture sectors particularly susceptible to the impacts of climate change. To understand climate-induced risk, this case study presents the results of climate change vulnerability and risk assessments (VRAs) at the national level for the crop, livestock, aquaculture, and water resources sectors. The assessments can be used to identify and subsequently prioritize adaptation actions and develop recommendations and actions for the agriculture sectors’ inclusion in Viet Nam’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP). 

Alongside the VRAs, a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of a range of adaptation options was undertaken to facilitate the prioritization of options. The objectives of this case study are to support sectoral adaptation planning, budgeting, and policy formulation. Lessons learned from these endeavors can provide insights for other countries that like Viet Nam are seeking to develop an evidence-based and climate risk-informed National Adaptation Plan (NAP) and/or adaptation plans for the agriculture sector. The work was implemented under the Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme.
2198NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
  
2929712/05/2022 14:56NWP Partner profile
Research institution
National
12/05/2022 14:56crmmocservices
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Education and training, Science and research, Vulnerability assessmentDisaster risk reduction, Human settlements, Urban resilience
crmmocservices
1- Identification and prioritization of rural settlements at risk of natural hazards, specifically floods across 31 provinces in I.R of Iran and applying adaptation measures 2- Climate change adaptation research and studies 3- Practical solutions and useful strategies for climate- related issues and sustainable urban development 4- Addressing urban development considering resilience against climate change (specifically in the case of the capital, Tehran) 5- Presenting suitable urban disaster risk management measures focusing on climate change and other natural and man-made hazards
NWPSearchableItemTechnical document/report
https://ndri.ac.ir/, https://ndri.ac.ir/
  
2578304/10/2016 11:39ToolPartner
Understanding local communities, their languages and most of all their needs was crucial regarding learning during the process, as well as their effort in understanding scientists. More needs to be done in order to reach more farmers and actually influence the adaptation planning process in more depth since now it is being mainly focused in yield losses, planting and water availability as a consequence of the presence of El Niño phenomenon.
Research institution
CCAFS Latin America Regional Program
Caribbean and Central AmericaLocal
Colombia
Communities12/05/2022 07:06No presence informationBrian Mayanja
Mesas Técnicas Agroclimáticas (Local Technical Agroclimatic Committees)https://ccafs.cgiar.org/es/mesas-tecnicas-agroclimaticas#.Vp0Rl_nhDIU La adaptación no es ‘talla única’: adaptar cultivos con predicciones climáticas a escalas locales es posiblehttps://ccafs.cgiar.org/es/adaptacion-con-predicciones-climaticas-a-escal-local-es-posible#.Vo63wfnhBhF
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Communication and outreach/awareness, Institutional arrangements, Stakeholder involvementWater resources, Ecosystems, Health, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Agroclimatic forecasts are generated through Food and Agriculture Organization models Aquacrop and Cropwat. These have been calibrated for Colombian conditions for a many crops, including (but not limited to) maize, rice, cotton, banana, and pastures, which are addressed in the LTAC.
NWPSearchableItem
  
2578204/10/2016 11:39ToolPartner
Understanding local communities, their languages and most of all their needs was crucial regarding learning during the process, as well as their effort in understanding scientists. More needs to be done in order to reach more farmers and actually influence the adaptation planning process in more depth since now it is being mainly focused in yield losses, planting and water availability as a consequence of the presence of El Niño phenomenon.
Research institution
CCAFS Latin America Regional Program
Caribbean and Central AmericaLocal
Colombia
Communities12/05/2022 06:50No presence informationBrian Mayanja
Mesas Técnicas Agroclimáticas (Local Technical Agroclimatic Committees)https://ccafs.cgiar.org/es/mesas-tecnicas-agroclimaticas#.Vp0Rl_nhDIU La adaptación no es ‘talla única’: adaptar cultivos con predicciones climáticas a escalas locales es posiblehttps://ccafs.cgiar.org/es/adaptacion-con-predicciones-climaticas-a-escal-local-es-posible#.Vo63wfnhBhF
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Communication and outreach/awareness, Institutional arrangements, Stakeholder involvementWater resources, Ecosystems, Health, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Used to build robust regression models that allow relating climate patterns, climate forcing in Colombia and in situ observations. The prediction on the statins used are generated based on the values for forthcoming months of SST field using a non-exclusively statistical approach, that is, a hybrid approach (dynamic-statistical) following the guidelines from Gershunov and Cayan (2003) and Gershunov et al. (2000).
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2578104/10/2016 11:39Knowledge ResourcePartner
Formal and field sessions allow participants with limited knowledge of CC-CSA related issues to have a better understanding of these issues. A good combination of theory and actual practice (mixed indoor and outdoor activities) make for effective learning.
Research institution
Regional Office of CCAFS for SEA – c/o: Agriculture Genetic Institute; km2 Pham Van Dong Avenue, North-Tu Liem district, Hanoi. CCAFS Coordinating Unit - Faculty of Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 21, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. Tel: +45 35331046; Email: ccafs@cgiar.org
AsiaLocal, National
Viet Nam; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Cambodia
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers12/05/2022 06:44No presence informationBrian MayanjaAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Stakeholder involvement
Roberto Felix
Participants use participatory methods and tools to collect and analyze data for changing climate trends. They action plans building on the lessons learned from the course. The action plan ensures that the learnings will be translated into adaptation action planning to improve their current work programs and projects.
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2578004/10/2016 11:39ToolPartner
• Vulnerability assessments should be directed by national priorities, informed through public consultations. • A public inventory to monitor the implementation of adaptation options should be created and maintained. • Coordination bodies for climate change adaptation should be formalised/institutionalised. • Information collection and management systems need to be consolidated and maintained. • Mechanisms for greater public participation in the development of priorities and monitoring of policy implementation should be established. • Innovate financing mechanisms should be developed. • Knowledge on climate change adaptation processes is not adequately shared among public sector agency personnel. • Mandates and responsibilities for climate change adaptation procedures among ministries and agencies may be in a state of flux or unclear, even to those within the agencies. • Significant knowledge gaps persist at the civil society level regarding national climate change adaptation priorities and activities.
Research institution
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI)
Caribbean and Central AmericaNational, Regional
Saint Lucia; Trinidad and Tobago
Academics and scientists, Communities, Practitioners, Private sector12/05/2022 06:23No presence informationBrian MayanjaAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Communication and outreach/awareness, Financial support, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Stakeholder involvement, Vulnerability assessmentWater resources, Ecosystems, Health, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Provides civil society organisations with a framework, methodology and approach for assessing national institutional capacity and readiness to implement implement climate change adaptation policy. The toolkit helps effectively develop and implement these policies.
NWPSearchableItem
  
2577804/10/2016 11:39ToolPartner
Research institution
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI)
Caribbean and Central AmericaSubregional
Antigua and Barbuda; Dominica; Grenada; Saint Lucia; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Practitioners, Private sector12/05/2022 06:12No presence informationBrian MayanjaCapacity building, Climate scenarios, Vulnerability assessmentWater resources, Ecosystems, Health, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
An online support system for climate-resilient decision-making to identify actions that minimize climate-related loss, take advantage of opportunities and build climate-resilient development
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2577704/10/2016 11:39ToolPartner
An integrated, ecosystem-based and participatory approach to adaptation planning is needed for coastal and marine areas in the Caribbean islands where many sectors share space and resources and face common threats from climate change
Research institution
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI)
Caribbean and Central AmericaSubregional
Antigua and Barbuda; Dominica; Grenada; Saint Lucia; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Practitioners, Private sector12/05/2022 06:01No presence informationBrian MayanjaCapacity building, Climate scenarios, Vulnerability assessmentWater resources, Ecosystems, Health, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Activity 1: P3DM uses information and communication technology tools to facilitate participatory climate change vulnerability assessments addressing the challenge of effectively engaging a wide range of stakeholders (including those at different literacy and capacity levels) to capture local and traditional knowledge as well as stakeholder input on priority needs and opportunities for resilience building. Activity 2: P3DM facilitates the inclusion of local knowledge in spatial adaptation planning. P3DM allows stakeholders to note the impacts of climate change on their communities, assess vulnerabilities and discuss possible adaptation measures.
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2579304/10/2016 11:39Knowledge ResourcePartner
Recommendations for institutions and projects working to improve the application of geospatial data and technologies for decision making in the LMR (SERVIR-Mekong, 2015: pp. vi-vii): 1. Promote and support the development of a community of practice around the use of geospatial data for decision making. 2. Create web-based resources and support events that bring practitioners together to share experiences and information, coordinate and collaborate on strategies and tools, as well as to build capacity for effectively and efficiently addressing priority needs. 3. Work with decision makers, technical staff, and other stakeholders to develop customized, context-specific decision-support tools that will be used to enhance priority management, planning, and policy development processes. 4. Promote the integration of geospatial considerations across sectors to address issues of contradictory plans, policies and decisions. 5. Develop a guidance note on for GIS developers and application users on how to integrate gender concerns, and point to types and sources of gender-related data that can be used in various GIS tools. 6. Support existing initiatives to clarify, inventory, and harmonize geospatial data resources in all LMR countries, especially in Cambodia, the Lao PDR and Myanmar. 7. Support the further development of a regional network of universities conducting geospatial-related research and capacity building, and support their efforts to more effectively understand and link their work with government agencies. 8. Create and enhance online portals and other data-sharing mechanisms that make it easier for practitioners to access and use satellite-derived data for monitoring and forecasting. 9. Promote international metadata standards and tools that facilitate the efficient authoring and stewardship of metadata. 10. Document the value of open data policies, and showcase examples of how such policies can enhance outcomes and save resources in the region. 11. Work with stakeholders to design, build and maintain decision-support tools related to the region’s top geospatial application priorities. 12. Using similar methods as those used in this assessment, reassess regional geospatial data and technology needs at two- or three-year intervals so that changing priorities can be identified, and effectively and efficiently addressed.
National/public entity
SERVIR-Mekong (regional hub); SERVIR-Global (global headquarters)
AsiaSubregional
Cambodia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Practitioners12/05/2022 05:33No presence informationBrian MayanjaCapacity building, Climate observations, Communication and outreach/awareness, Institutional arrangements, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement, Technology supportWater resources, Ecosystems, Health, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Provides the extent of inundation resulting from all dams currently existing, under construction and planned. This dataset can be used for evaluating adaptation strategies and infrastructure development alternatives, especially in areas where livelihoods are dependent on fisheries and/or agricultural systems that depend on the existing water allocation infrastructure.
NWPSearchableItem
  
2555213/05/2016 12:11ToolPartner
Intergovernmental organization (IGO)
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI)
Caribbean and Central AmericaNational, Regional
Saint Lucia; Trinidad and Tobago
Academics and scientists, Communities, Practitioners, Private sector12/05/2022 05:22No presence informationBrian MayanjaAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Communication and outreach/awareness, Financial support, Institutional arrangements, Knowledge management, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Stakeholder involvement, Vulnerability assessmentWater resources, Ecosystems, Health, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
The study was aimed at improving the capacity of Caribbean islands to develop and implement effective climate change adaptation policy and action. The specific objectives were to: • analyse the state of institutional capacity and readiness to implement climate change adaptation policies to identify strengths and weaknesses using the “Rapid Institutional Analysis for Adaptation” (ARIA) toolkit; • develop high-priority and low-cost next steps within national and regional policy contexts; • assess the level of transparency in adaptation policy-making and planning and the opportunities for public involvement; • conduct “deep dive” assessments into three priority areas selected by project participants for each country to better understand institutional capacity at the sectoral level; and • build civil society capacity to more meaningfully engage in these processes through use of the toolkit and interaction with relevant government agencies.
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2579204/10/2016 11:39Knowledge ResourcePartner
Recommendations for institutions and projects working to improve the application of geospatial data and technologies for decision making in the LMR (SERVIR-Mekong, 2015: pp. vi-vii): 1. Promote and support the development of a community of practice around the use of geospatial data for decision making. 2. Create web-based resources and support events that bring practitioners together to share experiences and information, coordinate and collaborate on strategies and tools, as well as to build capacity for effectively and efficiently addressing priority needs. 3. Work with decision makers, technical staff, and other stakeholders to develop customized, context-specific decision-support tools that will be used to enhance priority management, planning, and policy development processes. 4. Promote the integration of geospatial considerations across sectors to address issues of contradictory plans, policies and decisions. 5. Develop a guidance note on for GIS developers and application users on how to integrate gender concerns, and point to types and sources of gender-related data that can be used in various GIS tools. 6. Support existing initiatives to clarify, inventory, and harmonize geospatial data resources in all LMR countries, especially in Cambodia, the Lao PDR and Myanmar. 7. Support the further development of a regional network of universities conducting geospatial-related research and capacity building, and support their efforts to more effectively understand and link their work with government agencies. 8. Create and enhance online portals and other data-sharing mechanisms that make it easier for practitioners to access and use satellite-derived data for monitoring and forecasting. 9. Promote international metadata standards and tools that facilitate the efficient authoring and stewardship of metadata. 10. Document the value of open data policies, and showcase examples of how such policies can enhance outcomes and save resources in the region. 11. Work with stakeholders to design, build and maintain decision-support tools related to the region’s top geospatial application priorities. 12. Using similar methods as those used in this assessment, reassess regional geospatial data and technology needs at two- or three-year intervals so that changing priorities can be identified, and effectively and efficiently addressed.
National/public entity
SERVIR-Mekong (regional hub); SERVIR-Global (global headquarters)
AsiaSubregional
Cambodia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Practitioners12/05/2022 05:17No presence informationBrian MayanjaCapacity building, Climate observations, Communication and outreach/awareness, Institutional arrangements, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvement, Technology supportWater resources, Ecosystems, Health, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Assists planners in identifying potential barriers to fish movement that may result from modifications to the placement, design and operation of dams on the Xe Kong River. This dataset can be used for evaluating adaptation strategies and infrastructure development alternatives, especially in areas where livelihoods are dependent on fisheries and/or agricultural systems that depend on the existing water allocation infrastructure.
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2579404/10/2016 11:39ToolPartner
Cost Benefit Analysis is an important tool for assisting decision making in a situation of scarce resources, and also assist with the process of prioritization. According to participants, this was the first cost-benefit analysis training that had been conducted in/for their countries in recent times. Moreover, participants reported that cost benefit analysis is not widely undertaken by Government officials, though participants/Governments recognised the usefulness of CBA and were keen to increase its application in country (including for assessment of non-climate change adaptation projects). In the future, workshop materials should be designed to be accessible by people with no economics background, since no economists from some countries participated. The exercises were reported as one of the main strengths/take-away skills learned from the workshop. Many participants were not familiar with the use of excel prior to the workshop which had the effect of slowing down the exercises as well as detracting from the economic analysis elements of the exercises. Participants were very receptive to a participatory exercise which sought to demonstrate how people ‘discount’ future consumption in everyday life.
Intergovernmental organization (IGO), National/public entity
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)
AsiaNational, Regional
Cook Islands; Fiji; Micronesia (Federated States of); Marshall Islands; Nauru; Niue; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Samoa; Solomon Islands; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Kiribati
Practitioners, Private sector12/05/2022 05:01No presence informationBrian MayanjaAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Institutional arrangements, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Socio-economic data and information, Stakeholder involvementWater resources, Ecosystems, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Completes cost-benefit analyses of the PACC demonstration projects. Undertakes economic assessment of climate change in each country to help support national adaptation policies and implementation processes, and helps countries to mobilize resources and seek additional funding to implement country-wide adaptation measures.
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2322821/04/2016 10:42ToolGender
CARE International
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Pacific/Oceania, South America
Bangladesh; Nepal; Ghana; Indonesia; Viet Nam; Thailand; Peru
12/05/2022 04:54No presence informationBrian Mayanja
Further information about the CVCA methodology and its gender sensitive application can be found in the publications below: https://careclimatechange.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/CARE-CVCA-Handbook-EN-v0.8-web.pdf​ ​
Community-based adaptation, Gender
Roberto Felix
CARE’s CVCA methodology provides a framework for analyzing vulnerability and the capacity to adapt to climate change at the community level. The methodology has a number of characteristics for assessing vulnerability to climate change of communities. These include: - a focus on climate change - analysis of existing conditions, hazards and trends - emphasis on multi-stakeholder analysis, collaboration and dialogue - a focus on communities and the most vulnerable, with an emphasis on enabling environments as well. The CVCA methodology recognizes that gender plays a critical role in how different groups of people experience climate change impacts. Women and men have differing abilities to respond to the threat that climate change . The ability to act on adaptation is shaped by access to information, such as early warning systems and seasonal forecasts. It may be determined by control over resources such as agricultural land or household assets, or by the power to influence decisions in the household or community. In each of these cases, it is often women who are at a disadvantage when it comes to adaptation. Effective and equitable adaptation thus requires an understanding of the dynamics of vulnerability and how gender influences these dynamics. The CVCA methodology takes gender differences into account when assessing vulnerability of communities to climate change, leading to planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of adaptation that reflects the differing roles, responsibilities and power that men and women have, and that seeks to overcome gender inequality.
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2322921/04/2016 10:42ToolGender
CARE International
Africa, Asia
12/05/2022 04:48No presence informationBrian Mayanja
Community-based adaptation, Gender
Roberto Felix
This special edition of Joto Afrika provides insights and learning from the ‘Gender and Community-based Adaptation Learning Workshop’, held in Ghana in August 2011, which brought together 42 gender and community-based adaptation practitioners from 12 government, UN and civil society organisations in Ghana, Niger, Morocco, Kenya and Mozambique, as well as resource people from CARE International and IIED. Participants shared and discussed their knowledge and experience in gender and adaptation to climate change around two themes: 1. Recognizing and promoting the existing capacities and power of women and men in adapting to climate change and reducing vulnerability 2. Generating good practice principles and methods for integrating gender equality into CBA processes in Africa Discussion revolved around how best to learn about the shifting gender and climate dynamics in any local context, and how to use this knowledge to support gender and power analysis as part of vulnerability analysis, facilitate gender sensitive community adaptation action planning, assess capacity and capacity gaps and identify community institutions to represent the concerns of the most vulnerable. Some of the key recommendations emerging from the workshop include: • Develop capacity building programs, which emphasize the vision, value and importance of gender-responsive CBA and climate change • Recognize that gender is not an ‘add- on’, but a requirement for adaptation planning • Conduct gender and power analysis prior to adaptation planning to ensure knowledge of the existing power dynamics and capacities among and between men and women and the drivers of why and how power relationships, behaviors and norms change in the communities they work with. • Understand the drivers of change in gender roles and relations and examine how power dynamics are shifting due to the pressures and stresses of climate change. • Tailor Community-based adaptation methods and tools based on knowledge of the local context as well as climate information, to ensure they respond to gender dynamics, realities of change, risk and uncertainty.
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2323021/04/2016 10:42ToolGender
CARE International
Asia, Pacific/Oceania
Nepal
12/05/2022 04:37No presence informationBrian MayanjaCommunity-based adaptation, Gender
Roberto Felix
The goal of Community-based Adaptation (CBA) is to build the resilience of vulnerable individuals, households, communities and societies from the ground up. It is a ‘community-led’ or ‘community-driven’ approach to adaptation that complements top-down planning and programs. CBA also addresses social drivers of vulnerability including gender inequality, inequalities in the distribution of rights, resources and power are often at the root of poverty and vulnerability. Such social inequalities increase harmful climate change impacts on many poor people while constraining their options for taking action to reduce them through adaptation. Gender inequalities, combined with other factors such as age, ethnicity, livelihood group, or economic status, form an important and often insufficiently addressed barrier to equitable adaptation. However, CBA often requires attention to both the current and future vulnerabilities resulting from climate change. Since future climate change impacts are uncertain, CBA interventions need to embody a learning-by-doing approach, iteration, and constant monitoring. CARE’s Participatory Monitoring, Evaluation, Reflection and Learning (PMERL) approach helps communities address these challenges associated with climate change. The PMERL approach helps communities and service providers answer questions about the match between achievements and expectations, the appropriateness of achievements, the scale and appropriateness of CBA interventions. Participation, joint learning and reflection processes are integrated into the monitoring and evaluation of CBA to ensure these efforts are as effective as possible. This approach goes beyond conventional monitoring and evaluation by not only facilitating learning from change, but also by providing an evidence base to learn to enable change. And it encourages joint responsibility and co-learning between service providers and vulnerable communities to improve the CBA processes. The PMERL approach is gender sensitive because it successfully does the following: • monitor and document gender achievements in CBA projects which can be used for advocacy and in building the right enabling environment • recognize that gender has significant power dimensions and thus monitor gender dynamics in relative terms, not in absolutes or in isolation from the rest of society • Access the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards gender in relation to CBA implementation.
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2406321/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
PepsiCo India
Asia
India
11/05/2022 03:54No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adapting to Climate Change: A Guide for the Food, Beverage and Agriculture Industry (BSR): http://www.bsr.org/en/our-insights/report-view/adapting-to-climate-change-a-guide-for-the-food-beverage-and-agriculture-in
Adaptation planning and practices, Financial support, Science and researchAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity
Roberto Felix
PepsiCo entered India in 1989 and has grown to become the country’s largest-selling food and beverage company.

India grows approximately 130 million tons of rice across roughly 108 million acres, making it one of the largest rice producers in the world. Traditionally, rice is cultivated by sowing seeds in a small nursery, where the seeds germinate into seedlings. The seedlings are then transferred manually into the main field and then grown with four to five inches of water at the base of the crop for the first six to eight weeks, mainly to prevent weed growth. 

In India, a region that faces severe water shortages, an agriculture process called direct seeding of rice helps growers avoid three water-intensive steps: puddling, transplanting and standing water. After successful trials with direct seeding in PepsiCo’s research and development fields, the company has developed a direct seeding machine for its farmers. In 2010, PepsiCo expanded direct seeding and applied it to approximately 10,000 acres, saving more than 7 billion liters of water. And, because in direct seeding there is no water at the base of the crop, there is also a 70 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. 

In addition, PepsiCo and PAGREXCO (Punjab Agri Export Corporation) partnered in 2002 to start a “Citrus Development Initiative”, marking another step towards the promotion of crop diversification and helping farmers adapt to a water-constrained climate. In consultation with the local government, PepsiCo introduced less water-intensive citrus plantations for farmers as an alternative to paddy and set up two fruit processing plants in the region. The initiative has emerged as one of the most successful models of public-private partnerships in Indian agri-business, promoting crop diversification and creating a localized supply base for citrus juice for PepsiCo’s Tropicana business. 

PepsiCo is involved in several water conservation efforts throughout its business operations, including the use of rainwater harvesting initiatives in its manufacturing locations, such as roof-water harvesting and recharge ponds. 

The Pepsico Foundation has also partnered with Water.org​ to develop WaterCredit, a market-driven model that will provide microloans to families throughout India. This expansion will help enable approximately 800,000 people to access safe water by March 2016.
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2406821/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector
Royal Engineers & Consultants, LLC
North AmericaLocal
United States of America
11/05/2022 03:38No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
A Fresh Look at the Green Economy: Jobs that Build Resilience to Climate Change (Oxfam): https://www.oxfamamerica.org/explore/research-publications/a-fresh-look-at-the-green-economy/​​
Adaptation planning and practicesEcosystems, Coastal areas/zones, Infrastructure, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Royal Engineers and Consultants is a small company headquartered in New Orleans that operates in communities along the Gulf Coast in Louisiana, Alabama, and Texas. The company works in the areas of civil engineering, construction and construction management, coastal and environmental engineering, and project management. 

In designing marsh restoration projects, such as a project in the northern shoreline of Lake Merchant in Louisiana, engineers employed by Royal have considered long-term sea-level rise rates and account for these rates in choosing ecosystem management practices that support marine life and natural vegetation. 

In Cameron Parish, Royal led and coordinated the workflow for a large Hurricane Rita reconstruction program consisting of approximately 60 individual projects. Royal helped the parish select and prioritize projects based on a set of sustainability-related criteria and incorporated retrofits to protect against future flood and storm damage. 

Royal Engineers performed geotechnical inspections of New Orleans city buildings that were damaged during Hurricane Katrina to determine whether they were structurally safe enough to rebuild. Buildings for the city’s Office of Recovery Management were then rebuilt to be more likely to withstand future hurricanes. In the rebuilding process, the company utilized green building materials and technologies when possible.
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2407221/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Non-governmental organization (NGO), Private sector

​The main conclusion of the study is that HARITA is achieving the critical objective of helping farmers to maintain their livelihoods in the face of drought, thereby addressing an urgent threat to livelihoods in the drought-prone region of Tigray. On average, across all villages included in the evaluation, farmers insured through HARITA have increased their savings and the number of oxen, the most valuable animal and the main animal used to plough the fields, relative to uninsured farmers. The impacts differ considerably across the 3 evaluated districts, and our data does not suggest that each of the average effects has occurred in each district. In one district, insured farmers increased their levels of grain reserves more than did uninsured farmers. In another district, insured farmers increased the number of oxen owned relative to the uninsured. The number of oxen declined slightly among the uninsured. In a third district, insured farmers increased the number of loans and amounts borrowed relative to the uninsured.

HARITA is also having some impacts on investments in production in good seasons. We do not yet see evidence of corresponding increases in yields. Lack of increases in yields is not surprising in the second evaluated season due to the drought. On average, across all evaluated villages, insured farmers have increased the amount of compost that they use per unit of land relative to uninsured farmers. In addition, in one of the three districts insured farmers increased their investments in fertilizer and traditional seeds relative to uninsured farmers. Farmers in the other two districts increased their investments in fertilizer and improved seeds relative to uninsured farmers but only in the 2010 season, not over the entire evaluation period. Female- headed households, who are among the more vulnerable farmers, seem to be achieving some of the most significant increases in agricultural inputs among the participants. If such productive investments continue to grow, they will contribute to building the farmers’ resilience to droughts.

Based on interviews and FGDs with farmers and village leaders, we learned that farmers consider knowledge about new agricultural production inputs and techniques to be the most valuable contribution made by HARITA. We do not characterize the improvement in knowledge as an impact of the program since the knowledge comes primarily from the Ethiopian agricultural extension service, which works closely with HARITA but also works with farmers in non-HARITA villages. However, it is useful for program design to understand the importance of working closely with a capable extension service, as HARITA is doing.

Farmers and village leaders overwhelmingly affirm the value of HARITA in helping to reduce the hardships imposed by droughts, and they express tremendous appreciation for the program. Almost all also agree that HARITA is not yet improving livelihoods in a transformative way. Improving living standards is an ambitious goal that requires time, and it is too early to assess whether the program in its current form can achieve this goal.​

Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd; Oxfam America
Africa
Ethiopia
11/05/2022 03:29No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Financial support, Impact assessment, Science and researchAgriculture, Food security, Biodiversity, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
For the 1.3 billion people living on less than a dollar a day who depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, vulnerability to weather-related shocks is a constant threat to security and well-being. As climate change drives an increase in the frequency and intensity of natural hazards, the challenges faced by food-insecure communities struggling to improve their lives and livelihoods will also increase. 

In response to these challenges, Oxfam America, Swiss Re and their partners developed a holistic risk management framework to enable poor farmers in the drought-prone northern state of Tigray in Ethiopia to strengthen their food and income security through a combination of community climate resilience projects (risk reduction), insurance (risk transfer), microcredit ("prudent" risk-taking), and savings (risk reserves): the Horn of Africa Risk Transfer for Adaptation (HARITA) project. 

Existing approaches to providing drought insurance to the poorest have not been effective due to high administrative costs and the inability of cash-poor smallholders to afford premiums. Instead, an “insurance-for-work” program was developed as an add-on to the government’s “food-and cash-for-work” Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP), a well-established program that serves eight million chronically food-insecure households in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency also played a strong role in supporting weather data collection and analysis for the weather index insurance. 

The resulting innovation allows cash-poor farmers the option to work for their insurance premiums by engaging in community-identified projects to reduce risk and build climate resilience, such as improved irrigation or soil management. In the event of a seasonal drought, insurance payouts are triggered automatically when rainfall drops below a pre-determined threshold, enabling farmers to afford the seeds and inputs necessary to plant in the following season and protecting them from having to sell off productive assets to survive. In partnership with local microfinance institutions, the model allows farmers the option to bundle insurance with credit and savings. 

The labor used to pay for weather index insurance is contributed to community-identified projects to reduce risk and build climate resilience, such as improved irrigation or soil management. Farmers identify these activities through community-driven Participatory Capacity and Vulnerability Assessments. 

HARITA’s success has led Oxfam America and the World Food Programme (WFP) to announce the R4 Rural Resilience Initiative as a strategic collaboration to expand the HARITA model in Ethiopia and adapt the model to other countries. Swiss Re is providing financial support and technical expertise as the partnership’s exclusive insurance sector sponsor, and also acts as the reinsurer for the project.
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2407421/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Taratari Shipyard; Friendship
Asia
Bangladesh
11/05/2022 03:19No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
A Strategy to Engage the Private Sector in Climate Change Adaptation in Bangladesh (International Finance Corporation): https://www.preventionweb.net/files/16483_ifcpresccpsv8sep12010ifcsk1.pdf​​
Adaptation planning and practices, Science and researchAgriculture, Food security, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones
Roberto Felix
A Bangladeshi firm, Taratari Shipyard, is keen to receive R&D support in boat building to help manufacture boats that are more suited to volatile weather conditions in as cost-effective a manner as possible. Tartari is looking to build fiberglass fishing boats that are much more stable in turbulent weather conditions and significantly more resilient in flood conditions. Currently, almost all fishing boast in Bangladesh are made from wood. Although they cost BDT 50,000 (USD 700) versus BDT 300,000 (USD 4200) for a fiberglass boat, the latter lasts for 20 years. Friendship, a well know local NGO, is working with Tartari on this project.
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2407621/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
HSBC Holdings plc
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South America
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
11/05/2022 02:55No presence informationNicholas Hamp-AdamsFinancial support, Impact assessment, Science and researchAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity, Health, Disaster risk reduction, Infrastructure, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
HSBC, a global financial services firm headquartered in the UK, has developed a range of responses relating to climate adaptation, from both a risk perspective and in terms of opportunity. On the risk front, it released the HSBC Climate Vulnerability Assessment, which maps risk for the G20 in 2020 from expected climate impacts, in terms of food losses, water stress, and rising healthcare costs. This assessment is intended to advise both the bank and its clients on looming risks, but can also help to shape future products. 

One clear example is the bank’s entry into the crop insurance market, developing, together with Allianz, a German insurance and financial services group, an offering for Brazilian farmers, to help them deal with climate-related losses. 

HSBC has also established a climate change research facilitation programme with the UK Met Office, which will allow fund managers to make more accurate assessments of the climate risks and impacts across their investment portfolios. This is part of a major effort by HSBC to assist fund managers in understanding the broader impacts of climate change on investments.
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2407921/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Suntory Holdings Limited
AsiaRegional
Japan
11/05/2022 02:41No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Education and trainingFood security, Water resources, Ecosystems
Roberto Felix
Suntory Limited is making the conservation of water resources the axis of its environmental activities in line with its corporate message “Suntory, Bringing Water to Life”. 

As a corporation that depends highly on the water for the production of its whiskey, beer, wine, non-alcoholic beverages, and foods, Suntory is committed to safeguarding the Earth’s precious water resources. 

Suntory uses water that flows from the heart of the Kaikomagatake mountain in the Minami Alps. Great tasting water is an indispensable factor in Suntory’s manufacturing process. The company understands that forests play a critical role in restoring groundwater. To cultivate this important resource, Suntory includes forest conservation among its environmental projects. Working in collaboration with local communities, the Suntory Forest of Natural Water project is a forestation activity that both cultivates forests that are highly functional as natural water sanctuaries and conserves biodiversity. Suntory’s forest preservation activities seek to generate more groundwater than the amount used by its plants, and Suntory plans to expand its area of natural water sanctuaries to approximately 7,000 hectares by the end of 2011. 

Suntory also runs a program “Outdoor School of Forest and Water” which is designed to teach children about the prime importance of the planet’s water and forests. Suntory offers outdoor excursions to engage children first-hand about the forest and water resources, as well as “traveling classrooms” designed to teach children about water starting with surroundings familiar to them.
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2409721/04/2016 11:46Case studyPSI

​Prompted by reduced and poorly distributed rainfall in the tea gardens and the surrounding area (and linking this to the apparent deforestation), the Kenyan business initiated a tree-planting project in the year 2000 – Trees2000 – that includes all management and staff. As of June 2009, over 700,000 indigenous trees had been planted on farms and in the surrounding community. Every year, the company propagates over 100,000 seedlings. 

Each employee plants at least two trees annually and company visitors are expected to plant at least one tree. The on-farm survival rate for the trees is well over 90%. The scheme has now spread to other Kenyan tea farms, including those of smallholders and outgrowers for the plantation companies, and to the Tanzanian business (where 150,000 indigenous trees will have been planted by 2010). 

All the boilers used for drying tea in UTEA factories are wood-fired, and the company – apart from improving forestry and wood-management techniques – has improved boiler efficiency through new economical installations. In East African countries heavily burdened by poverty, continued large-scale deforestation, and increasing problems of water availability, Unilever Tea companies are helping reduce the problems and adapting to a more uncertain future.​
Unilever
AfricaLocal, National
Kenya; United Republic of Tanzania
Practitioners, Private sector11/05/2022 02:30No presence informationNicholas Hamp-AdamsAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Impact assessment, Knowledge management, Science and research, Technology supportAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity
Roberto Felix
Unilever Tea-growing farms in East Africa (UTEA) recognized over 20 years ago that deforestation around Lake Victoria and the Mau Forest in Kenya and in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania was a threat to business. Rainfall patterns are highly dependent on local water cycles, in which the forests play an important role. With the shrinking of forests, rainfall patterns have changed and dry seasons have become longer and more frequent. 

In Tanzania, where a 6-month long dry season means that economic sustainability is only achievable by irrigating the tea, Unilever has focused its attention on conserving the high biodiversity value forest within its own concessions and in the surrounding area, and on improving irrigation efficiency. 

The company set up rainwater harvesting and storage systems in small valleys on the farm and hosted irrigation trials, managed by local and international researchers. By doing so, the business was among the first to understand and use the research findings on cost-effective and water-efficient irrigation for tea. Where the terrain is suitable, recent trials have shown that drip irrigation (rather than sprinkler) can save 70 liters of water per kilogram of tea harvested. 

In Kenya, UTEA has a program to identify and breed drought-tolerant tea varieties and rootstocks. It invests € 156,000 (US$ 230,000) annually in the program and has recently released two new tea varieties for commercial planting that are comparatively drought tolerant. These will be used throughout the East African business.
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2406021/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Meinert Enterprises
North America
Canada
11/05/2022 02:21No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
A Systematic Review of the Literature on Business Adaptation to Climate Change (Network for Business Sustainability): https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5d51595e713bcb0001848959/t/5d6c73e97c793f0001c85980/1567388650602/NBS_ClimateChange_Concepts_2009.pdf​
Adaptation planning and practices, Financial supportAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity
Roberto Felix
Meinert Enterprises is a southwestern Saskatchewan agriculture operation concerned with dryland farming. Meinert produces cereals, pulses, and forages in a continental climate on approximately 6,000 acres of land. Conditions are semi-arid and challenging due to both annual and seasonal variability and unpredictable frosts. 

Typically, there are 110 frost-free days, an average of 15 inches of moisture, and an abundance of sunlight in the region. Noting that farm decisions must include managing several factors at once, challenges include economic risks related to interest rates, dollar value, energy costs, and the need to maintain a consistent cash flow in a highly variable environment related to marketing and income. Uncertainty in these factors is exacerbated by the uncertainty in climate and weather conditions. In recent years, the major concerns pertaining to moisture levels.

Meinert Enterprises employs several farm practices to lessen the negative effects of moisture deficits including: trapping snow with stubble from the crops (some crops leave more desirable stubble than others); diversifying crops to include those with greater drought resistance, varying maturation lengths, and different stubble heights; enhanced early moisture infiltration; and employing crop rotation to improve soil quality.
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2406921/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI

​Companies that identify opportunities to enhance resilience in their operations can also develop new strategies for products and services that meet needs in markets adapting to a changing climate. Furthermore, companies that develop strong relationships with customers and the local communities in which they operate can better respond to changing consumer needs and become more effective partners in building resilient communities.

SEKEM has also recognized that engaging with local communities is a central adaptation priority, and in conjunction with the SEKEM Development Foundation (which maintains a variety of programmes in social development, research, health care, and education) has developed various methods of communication and consultation with local stakeholders. For SEKEM, having consistent interactions with external partners is crucial to developing new ideas and innovations.​

SEKEM Holdings Group
Africa
Egypt
11/05/2022 02:09No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adapting for a Green Economy: Companies, Communities and Climate Change (UN Global Compact): https://www.unglobalcompact.org/resources/116
Adaptation planning and practices, Stakeholder involvementFood security, Infrastructure, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
SEKEM Holdings Group – an Egyptian company offering products such as pharmaceuticals, organic foods and textiles – is incorporating adaptation priorities into a comprehensive sustainability strategy in order to reduce its vulnerability to climate change risks, while also working to provide products and services that increase resilience in local communities. 

SEKEM has identified climate change adaptation as a key long-term business strategy and has developed adaptation-oriented quality standards for products, services and solutions that also meet consumers’ current and emerging needs. The company partners with farmers, producers, vendors and consumers to market and distribute products in the context of a changing climate. SEKEM has identified practical methods of incorporating adaptation into its enterprise management model, including employing organic methods of agricultural production and updating its water management practices with more efficient drip irrigation methods. Such methods help integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation priorities into core business practices, with important benefits for enhancing efficiency as well as increasing institutional climate change resilience. 

SEKEM is integrating climate change risks and opportunities into each of its business units and key decision-making processes, with particular emphasis on addressing energy, food and water security issues. Its Sustainability Unit makes recommendations to key decision-makers across all business units and levels of management. In order to track the progress of climate-related strategies, SEKEM devised a set of indicators related to adaptation priorities and communicates those indicators through its Sustainability Balanced Scorecard system, which tracks adaptation-focused markets. 
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2407021/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Scotch Whisky Association; Scotch Whisky Research Institute
EuropeLocal, National
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
11/05/2022 01:57No presence informationNicholas Hamp-AdamsCommunication and outreach/awareness, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity
Roberto Felix
The Scotch Whisky Association (SWA) is the trade association for the Scotch Whisky industry. Its aim is to promote, protect and represent the interests of the Scotch Whisky industry in Scotland and around the world. The Scotch Whisky Research Institute (SWRI) is also a membership organisation, providing a centre of scientific excellence dedicated to the needs of the distilled beverage industry. 

SWA commissioned SWRI to deliver a scoping study to assess the risks of climate change to the sector and identify initial adaptation options. Following this, SWA held an industry workshop to raise awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation within the sector, share information and experience and generate ideas for how SWA and SWRI could work to build the adaptive capacity of the Scotch Whisky industry. 

The following are a few of the climate risks identified in the research:
  • The supply and quality of cereals, especially barley, is likely to be impacted by changes in future precipitation, flooding, drought and plant disease.
  • The timing of heavy rainfall and the gradual disappearance of spring snow-melt could affect the quality and quantity of burn and reservoir water.
  • The traditional processes of malting, distilling and maturing whisky, which have evolved during a more or less stable climate over the last few hundred years, are temperature sensitive and will therefore be affected by changes in the Scottish climate. 
The research found that the Scotch Whisky industry, along with all process-based industries, faces potential risks from projected future changes in the Scottish and global climate. As an industry with a long-term focus, the sector is already collectively undertaking a range of adaptation actions to tackle the impact of climate change. Further steps could be taken to adapt practices, strategies and infrastructure. The main priority is to raise awareness of specific business risks and build capacity within the industry to enable individual companies to adapt successfully and include risks from climate change into their Business Risk registers.
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2407121/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector
Siemens AG
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, South AmericaGlobal
Sri Lanka; Indonesia; Timor-Leste; Nepal; Pakistan; Thailand; Oman; Kenya; India
11/05/2022 01:33No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Impact assessment, Science and research, Technology supportAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
The scarcity of clean water is an ever-increasing global problem and is already being exacerbated by climate change. To help the UN achieve its goal of reducing the number of people without access to clean water to one half of today’s level by 2015, a team from Siemens Water Technologies has developed the portable water-purification system SkyHydrant and established the SkyJuice Foundation to ensure the system will be used effectively in developing countries and disaster areas. 

SkyHydrant purifies unclean water by pumping it through a membrane of ultra-fine fibers. It can produce up to 20,000 litres per day of exceptionally pure drinking water that surpasses World Health Organization (WHO) quality specifications. 

To date, the SkyJuice Foundation has installed around 450 water purification units throughout Sri Lanka, Indonesia, East Timor, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Oman, Kenya, South, and Central America and India. The systems are installed in schools, hospitals, clinics, internally displaced persons camps, and villages. Thousands of people now have access to continuous, safe drinking water. 

Siemens has also assisted the Singapore government in supplying much-needed fresh drinking water as about half the country’s requirement of water currently needs to be imported from Malaysia. Siemens provides a wastewater purification system that filters water to the required World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. A water purification plant in Kranji is now being expanded. By 2012, its capacity will be boosted to 210,000 m³ per day in order to meet 20 % of the city’s water requirements.
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2407321/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Non-governmental organization (NGO), Private sector, Research institution
The most recent development in the Sierra Madre work is the inclusion of watershed-level management planning in the area to ensure that conservation strategies target ecosystem services and that local people benefit from the results. Through this effort, CI is working with watershed committees to improve their management and to ensure long-term water provision from the Sierra Madre Mountains. The initiative will also mainstream ecosystem services and biodiversity into land use policies, as well as increase access by farmers to payment-for-ecosystem- services mechanisms to provide incentives for the implementation of watershed development strategies that conserve ecosystem services and biodiversity values and improve local livelihoods.
Starbucks Coffee Company; Conservation International
North America
Mexico
11/05/2022 01:18No presence informationNicholas Hamp-AdamsImpact assessment, Science and researchAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
The state of Chiapas in southern Mexico is rich in its biological, landscape, and cultural diversity yet is one of the economically poorest and most vulnerable states in Mexico. The mountain chain of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas is one of the most important coffee production areas in Mexico. These mountains are home to approximately 27,000 people and serve as a water catchment area for urban centers, surrounding towns, and agriculture. Much of the forest cover outside of protected areas is on coffee farms that consist of traditional, shade-grown production systems. 

Conservation International (CI) and government entities are working with several academic institutions, Starbucks Coffee Company, the Global Environment Facility, and local NGOs to implement a robust approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation that includes research, policy work, and community engagement activities. Underpinning the work is a scientific effort to inform the development of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. 

To demonstrate how climate change adaptation efforts can have tangible benefits for people, CI is working with Starbucks and other partners to support farmers in developing and implementing adaptation strategies by conducting vulnerability assessments and modeling climate scenarios and their impacts on coffee cultivation. 

Further efforts include watershed-level management planning to ensure conservation strategies target the provision of high-quality fresh water in the region and that local people benefit as a result. CI and Starbucks are working with watershed committees to improve their management and ensure long-term water provision from the Sierra Madre Mountains. The initiative will also mainstream ecosystem services and biodiversity into land-use policies, as well as increase access by farmers to payment-for-ecosystem-services mechanisms that provide incentives for land-use decisions that conserve ecosystem services and biodiversity values and improve local livelihoods. 

CI’s and Starbucks' work in Chiapas demonstrates how an effective climate change strategy that includes sustainable forest management and adaptation can affect change at both the policy level and within local communities. Through strong partnerships, rigorous science, and long-term commitment to building local capacity, Chiapas is succeeding in its effort to be a world leader in the development of necessary policies, institutions, and projects that provide multiple benefits to people and biodiversity while mitigating and adapting to climate change. 

CI partnered with local cooperatives, government agencies, and others to implement a set of Conservation Coffee Best Practices that promoted shade-grown coffee production to maintain the forest canopy and connect farmers applying the best practices to international markets with the aim of securing better prices for their coffee. CI and Starbucks continue to collaborate in Chiapas to demonstrate that coffee can be grown in ways that support and build the resilience of communities and ecosystems.
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2407821/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Sunlabob Renewable Energy Ltd.
Asia
Lao People's Democratic Republic
11/05/2022 00:51No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Making Climate Your Business: Private Sector Adaptation in South East Asia (WRI):http://www.wri.org/publication/making-climate-your-business
Education and training, Stakeholder involvement, Technology supportAgriculture, Food security, Biodiversity, Energy
Roberto Felix
Meeting energy needs with clean distributed power resources is a critical component of climate-resilient development. Sunlabob, based in Lao People’s Democratic Republic, has established an enterprise to provide off-grid solar, hydro and biomass energy profitably to rural areas. In doing so, energy access is improved and local entrepreneurs receive training to install and service the technologies, helping to diversify local employment, another need in many communities that may lead to enhanced adaptive capacity. 

Sunlabob is a full-service energy provider selling hardware and energy services in remote regions where the public grid does not yet reach, across Southeast Asia and parts of Africa. In Lao PDR, it has installed over 5,600 systems in over 450 villages, and strives to become the largest provider in the country of renewable energy solutions. 

In Lao PDR, many poor people in remote rural areas rely on kerosene for lighting. Kerosene lamps can be dangerous, causing burns, starting fires and polluting the air indoors. Solar lanterns, portable lighting fixtures that run on batteries charged using solar power, are a very promising alternative to kerosene lamps. Sunlabob has introduced high quality solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to Lao PDR in a way that people can afford. 

Although solar lanterns are being widely promoted as a lighting solution in remote villages, experience shows that the lanterns fail much earlier than would be expected due to low quality components that make them affordable for rural households. Furthermore, batteries are irregularly charged, and households engage in “hotwiring”, whereby they use the charge for operating other equipment, which causes the batteries to fail earlier. Independent solar lanterns with their own panels have therefore been uneconomical for rural households in the long run. 

Sunlabob has responded to this challenge by providing solar lantern charging services, using a carefully selected and trained network of franchises that install and maintain state-of-the-art solar PV equipment at centrally accessible locations. Each franchise trains village technicians to perform day-to-day maintenance. Sunlabob rents maintenance equipment to a Village Energy Committee, who are selected by the whole community, and who lease the equipment to entrepreneurs in the village. Village entrepreneurs then collect a fee for recharging portable lamps. This fee is a regular small expense for a household, just like buying kerosene at the village shop. 

Sunlabob’s products help rural communities build assets and capacities that they can use in adapting to climate change. Cutting back kerosene usage has left more money in citizens’ pockets for other purposes. The consistent local electricity supply from village systems has generated new sources of income and brought educational resources and modern communication tools to these communities, including mobile phones, power radios, and TVs. Larger village systems provide power for community services such as health systems and water pumping. In some cases, electricity will even allow the schools, community centers, and government offices to install computers. All of these assets can help communities build resilience and reduce their vulnerability to climate change impacts.
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2406121/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector

​Thermal simulations of the “100 k € Home” were conducted in locations with differing climates (i.e. USA (New Orleans and Chicago), Ireland, Italy and Palestine). The result of reduced heating and cooling demands translated into lower energy bills for each location, despite the geographic variability of sunlight and wind as resources. Furthermore, as the climate warms, the building may even produce an energy surplus, which can then be sold to the power grid.​

Mario Cucinella Architects
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal, National
Italy; United States of America; Ireland
11/05/2022 00:39No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Technology supportInfrastructure, Human settlements, Cities
Roberto Felix
The “100 k € Home” is a research project for a low cost and low impact residential complex. The aim of the project is to develop a high quality, zero CO2 emissions, and well-adapted housing prototype. 

As climate warms, projecting terraces and stairways have been designed to control solar irradiation during summer, while the garden and rooftop greenery reduce the heat island effect and contribute to passive cooling. Depending on the climatic conditions of the location, photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and geothermal heat provide at least enough energy to cover the total consumption of each housing unit. Hot water is produced locally thanks to a solar-heating plant integrated into the roofing. 

Since water scarcity is increasingly an issue for many countries, a rainwater collection system, alongside use of low-consumption fittings, has been designed to lower potable water requirements. The rainwater is then reused for permitted purposes (irrigation of greenery and toilet wastewater). 

Thanks to its modular structure, passive design, and the flexibility of the project, the “100 k € Home” can easily be adapted specifically to the climatic conditions of each location. Its low energy requirement, covered by renewable energies available on site, and its water harvesting system among other features, make this project accessible, even in locations where reliable access to energy and water sources are strained and likely to be exacerbated by climate change. 
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2406421/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Munich Re
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regionsGlobal
Germany
11/05/2022 00:22No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Financial support, Impact assessment, Science and researchAgriculture, Food security, Biodiversity, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
The Munich Climate Insurance Initiative (MCII) was launched by Munich Re and other partners in April 2005 to support developing countries in adapting to climate change through innovative insurance-related risk management tools. This initiative is hosted at the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) and brings together insurers, experts on climate change and adaptation, NGOs and policy researchers, intent on finding solutions to the risks posed by climate change. MCII provides a forum and gathering point for insurance-related expertise applied to climate-change impact issues. The group is open to new members (e.g. representatives of other insurance or reinsurance companies, climate change and adaptation experts, NGOs and policy researchers) seeking solutions to the risks posed by climate change. 

MCII strives to fulfill four objectives:
  1. Facilitate insurance-related solutions to help manage the impacts of climate change;
  2. Conduct and support pilot projects for the application of insurance-related solutions in partnerships and through existing organizations and programmes. Identify success stories and disseminate information on the factors necessary to design and implement effective climate insurance-related mechanisms. The emphasis in such actions will be on developing countries, while simultaneously evaluating insurance solutions that have been used in developed countries;
  3. Promote insurance-related approaches in cooperation with other organizations and initiatives and within existing frameworks such as the United Nations, international financial institutions, international donors and the private sector; and
  4. Identify and promote loss-reduction measures for tackling climate-related events. 

As a contribution to the UNFCCC COP 16 meeting in Cancun in 2010, MCII, ClimateWise, the Geneva Association and the UNEP Finance Initiative launched a global insurance industry statement on adaptation to climate change in developing countries. The statement highlights the contributions the insurance industry can make to adaptation, including expertise in risk management, prioritizing adaptation measures, incentivizing loss reduction, developing new insurance products, and raising awareness among the many stakeholders of the insurance industry. 

Munich Re also focuses on generating and disseminating high-quality data on climate trends and impacts. For example, the company has collaborated with the London School of Economics Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy to review the current state of climate modelling and improve the production and extraction of valuable, relevant information from various models given inherent uncertainties.

Munich Re is also a partner of ProVention, which was established by the World Bank in 2000 to address the increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters and their impacts on developing countries through forging new partnerships, sharing knowledge, promoting innovative solutions and policy advocacy.
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2406521/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI

​Businesses need to adapt. Many businesses have no choice about whether to respond to climate change impacts: climate change will force itself upon them. Their choices now come down to:

  1. When to respond. Should they act in anticipation of climate impacts or wait until they have no choice but to act?
  2. How to respond. Should they upgrade their facilities? Change the standards for the businesses they finance? Alter their product line? Enter new markets? Do nothing?
What any given business chooses to do will depend upon the type of business, its place in a larger economic, political, and social context, and the unique ways that climate change affects its work. Climate change may affect a business through a number of possible pathways. It could, for example, affect:
  • Supply chains,
  • Employees,
  • Customers,
  • Distribution networks,
  • Finance options,
  • Insurance costs, and
  • The macroeconomic environment​.
Rabobank
AsiaGlobal, Local, National, Regional
Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic ; Philippines; Viet Nam
11/05/2022 00:07No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
WRI: Making Climate Your Business: Private Sector Adaptation in South East Asia: http://www.wri.org/publication/making-climate-your-business
Education and training, Financial supportInfrastructure, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Through the Rabobank Foundation, Rabobank is involved in an initiative to develop saving and loan co-operatives in rural regions, by contributing donations, loans, trade financing and technical assistance. 

In August 2005, the Rabobank Foundation undertook the development of a climate change risk reduction program in Jakarta. The Foundation partnered with the Indonesian Red Cross and its counterparts from Germany and the Netherlands to develop the “Integrated Community-Based Risk Reduction – Climate Change” program. The program strengthens disaster preparedness in Jakarta’s four most flood-prone sub-districts. In all, the program provides support to around 121,000 people. 

From 2006 to 2008, PMI conducted assessments to identify disaster risks and the most vulnerable community groups, including household-level surveys. Community members learned assessment methods through this process and are now conducting their own assessments and developing their own adaptation plans. 

As part of the program, the Rabobank Foundation’s Indonesian partner Yayasan Pengembangan Perdesaan (YPP) offers microcredit and microinsurance to vulnerable communities. Working with local organizations, PMI and YPP design microcredit and microfinance products to increase the capability of communities to cope with disaster risks and impacts. Additionally, the program provides public education and awareness-raising campaigns to teach low-income households about disaster risks and options for engaging in saving and insurance schemes.
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2406621/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector
Riverside Technologies, Inc.
Africa, Asia, Europe, South AmericaGlobal, National
Ethiopia; Sudan; Romania; Bangladesh; Brazil; Morocco
10/05/2022 23:56No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
A Fresh Look at the Green Economy: Jobs that Build Resilience to Climate Change (Oxfam): http://www.oxfamamerica.org/explore/research-publications/a-fresh-look-at-the-green-economy/
Education and training, Impact assessment, Science and researchAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
Riverside assists organizations with collecting, analyzing, managing, and disseminating environmental information so managers and policy makers can formulate strategic and knowledgeable decisions related to critical water resources. Riverside has been working in the fields of water resource management and disaster risk reduction in the US and globally for 25 years. 

In Ethiopia and Sudan, Riverside has partnered with local consulting firms to identify and map the flood-related vulnerabilities and hazards of communities along flood-prone stretches of the eastern Nile River. The company is also helping governments along the Nile develop a framework for working together around water resource planning. 

Riverside worked with local communities in Romania to establish and develop more than 90 water user associations. Through intensive hands-on training sessions, Riverside helped build the capacity of these groups of water users to manage their organization, finances, and irrigation water effectively. 

Working with local partners in Bangladesh, Riverside adapted the latest flood warning technologies (remote sensing, hydrologic models, and geographic information systems) to the Bangladeshi context. In order to generate and disseminate accurate and timely flood warning messages to the village level, Riverside used a text message-based model for flood warning dissemination that gave vulnerable communities access to expert science. 

In arid and semi-arid places such as Morocco and northeastern Brazil, Riverside used innovative technologies and methods to assist water resource planners and decision makers. In Morocco, Riverside developed evapotranspiration estimates using remote sensing techniques to assess irrigation performance. In Brazil, Riverside quantified water losses through evaporation utilizing satellite imagery, mapping numerous small reservoirs, and then evaluating the impact of the water loss. 

Riverside typically includes local partners and communities—from both the private and public sectors—during project design and implementation, ensuring that these local engineering, consulting, and planning entities build their own capacity and resilience to respond to climate change scenarios.
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2410021/04/2016 11:46Case studyPSI
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, South AmericaGlobal
Brazil
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers10/05/2022 23:00No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Technology supportAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Health, Disaster risk reduction, Energy, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Tourism
Roberto Felix
Green Infrastructure, Waste Water Recycling, and Organic Waste Integrated Treatment System 
The wastewater, as well as organic waste, leave the building heading to the vermifilter where earthworms and beneficial bacteria digest sewage and the residual water. The castings are then pumped to the flat roof where the laminar green roof system promotes evapotranspiration to cool the building as the plant roots symbioses with facultative bacteria to better clean the water. The water then goes to a green wall where more cooling occurs. Residual water can be reused to flush toilets or infiltrate the subsoil already. From a technical perspective, the system is very simple and easy to operate with relatively low cost compared with conventional systems. However, awareness and incentives through national, state, and municipal policy are needed to obtain scaled gains.
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2409321/04/2016 11:45Case studyPSI
Private sector
BASF
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, South AmericaGlobal
Practitioners10/05/2022 22:28No presence informationNicholas Hamp-AdamsAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Impact assessment, Knowledge management, Science and research, Technology supportAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
Climate change is likely to have a negative impact on agricultural yield. Recent studies warn of declining crop yields and global food shortages as a result. The number and duration of dry spells, especially in already drought-prone areas, are expected to increase. Plant biotechnology offers solutions that allow farmers to adapt their agricultural techniques to such shifting climates. Drought-tolerant corn technology is part of BASF and Monsanto´s research and development in plant biotechnology, which is aimed at developing higher-yielding crops and crops more tolerant to unfavorable environmental conditions. 

The most advanced product of the companies’ pipeline is a drought-tolerant corn, which will be the first biotechnology-derived drought-tolerant crop in the world. The companies’ scientists are turning to nature to find mechanisms involved in stress responses. Subsequently, genes responsible for these mechanisms are transferred to staple crops. One discovery is a naturally occurring gene, the cspB gene from Bacillus subtilis, which helps corn plants combat dry conditions and confers yield stability during periods of inadequate water supplies. By reducing the impact of drought on the plant, cspB helps provide yield stability. In addition, BASF supports the Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) partnership with the aim of providing royalty-free new drought-tolerant maize varieties for small-scale.
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2409921/04/2016 11:46Case studyPSI
Intergovernmental organization (IGO), Non-governmental organization (NGO)
Femsa Foundation
Caribbean and Central America, North America, South AmericaRegional
Mexico; Brazil; Ecuador; Colombia; Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of); Panama; Costa Rica; Dominican Republic; Guatemala; Honduras; Peru; Bolivia; Chile
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector10/05/2022 22:19No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Financial support, Impact assessment, Knowledge management, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Vulnerability assessmentWater resources, Ecosystems, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
Floods, droughts, water contamination, and other impacts resulting from climate change pose risks to businesses and communities that strongly depend on water resources and on the ecosystems around them. A proactive approach to watershed management can reduce the financial, operational, and regulatory risks associated with this dependency, and also foster business opportunities by protecting environmental capital. The local water funds process is started with the stakeholder engagement and the establishment of a technical and an engagement team. It is very important to align public and private interventions in the basin. Once the key stakeholders are on board, a financial mechanism is established (usually a trust fund) in which interest earnings are invested in the watershed. 

The following actions are part of the solutions proposed to improve the watershed:
  • Better management practices, such as sustainable production, low-impact agriculture, silvopastoral cattle ranching systems, and similar.
  • Hydrological monitoring protocols.
  • Awareness campaigns.
  • Educational campaigns.
  • Data recollection and analysis.
  • Payments for environmental services (aimed to establish economic incentives to rural farmers to replace unsustainable practices)
  • Conservation agreements and other conservation practices of natural ecosystems.
  • Restoration, assisted (reforestation and others) or un-assisted (natural regeneration), of degraded ecosystems. 

Water Funds attract voluntary contributions from large water users downstream, like water utility companies, hydroelectric companies, and beverage companies. Revenue from these Water Funds is then directed to preserve key lands upstream that filter and regulate the water supply. Water Funds also create incentives and help finance sustainable economic development opportunities to benefit local communities.
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2411021/04/2016 11:46Case studyPSI
Chiles de Nicaragua, S.A.
Caribbean and Central AmericaNational
Nicaragua
Private sector10/05/2022 22:17No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Education and training, Financial support, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Technology support, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Biodiversity
Roberto Felix
Chile crop Tabasco variety in Nicaragua with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, which helps to keep moisture. All chili producers have irrigation systems, which enables them to cultivate during the rainy and dry seasons, with good agricultural practices, thanks to the support received from Chiles de Nicaragua, S.A. and to the alliances it promotes, and to the support received from the cooperation organism.
  1. Sharing of knowledge led to more favorable credit, technical, productive and associative conditions for other producers.
  2. All suppliers signed a contract in which they agreed upon a set of regulations and rules. This included: a pre-established buying price and the producers should install some kind of irrigation system (preferably drip irrigation). This enables the company’s agricultural cycle to be decoupled from the seasonality in precipitation. This allows the farmer to produce in the dry season, which indicates that the farmer is not influenced by the risk of flooding or dependency on rain-fed.
  3. Plastic mulch technology is implemented to increase water efficiency by reducing evaporation losses.
  4. The project became part of the USAID’s Program for Enterprises and Employment in Nicaragua for three years to strengthen the growth strategy for the company, which has been a key factor for boosting the company.
  5. Cooperation was established with: Program Tecnología Agrícola Competitiva TECHNO LINKS (CIDA, MEDA and FOMIN). Besides, a guarantee fund with national microfinance companies was created with FAMA and FDL
  6. The project participated in the Regional Project for Adaptation to Climatic Change for the Corporate Sector, fomented by IntegraRSE, GIZ and INCE, UnirRSE, among others, to analyze and identify the risks, opportunities and adaptation actions for CC, by using excellent tools and sharing experiences with other companies in the area.
  7. The construction and implementation of three shaded houses led to the possibility of production under controlled conditions and reduced vulnerability extreme temperatures and phytosanitary impacts.
  8. Transport security is provided by the pick-up service of the company.
  9. There is an active application process for the certification of organic chili with controlled agriculture, the outcome of this process is expected at the end of 2013.
  10. Increased regular visits of our technical team to our suppliers helps them in: a proper selection of the location for the crop, correctly transplant healthy and costly seedlings, supervising that the plots and ridges are well constructed to avoid flooding in the crop plantation area, that the irrigation system and plastic mulch are correctly installed and that data is collected in a correct manner.
  11. A strategic plan was created for the period of 2012-2015. The goal is to improve glitches in the Estrategias Empresariales ante el Cambio Climático en Centroamérica.
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2410621/04/2016 11:46Case studyPSI

​The soil fertility increased due to the use of compost which was created by processed coffee pulp. This resulted in a systemized production of stronger and more viable seedlings that increased farmers’ resilience to climate change effects. Productivity has also been increased by the use of nutrient rich polished waste water. This, besides, had a positive impact on local health and substantially improved health indicators. A spill-over effect was found in the sharing of knowledge regarding the potential for other communities to use comparable sanitation practices. Four systems were initially built, which fostered dialogs with the government of the Dominican Republic for a nation-wide productive sanitation plan. The plan was carried out using the local workforce to build the sanitation systems. During this cooperation knowledge was transferred to local entrepreneurs, who followed on building the subsequent systems.

O Instituto Ambiental; State Street Nicaragua, S.A.
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, South AmericaRegional
Dominican Republic
Communities, Practitioners, Private sector10/05/2022 22:09No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Technology supportAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Energy, Infrastructure, Human settlements
Roberto Felix
Members from local organisations visit the biodigestor in Jarabacoa, observing how the biogas flow from the biodigestors to a 120CV engine that provides heat to dry coffee grains. Coffee grains are processed after harvesting through using either a dry, or a wet method. The wet method is preferred in wet climates, since the conditions do not allow for the natural drying of grains. Although it produces coffee of superior quality, it also requires large volumes of water. This process produces a considerable amount of (highly acidic and nutrient rich) effluent. Usually this residue is discarded in local creeks or rivers; depleting oxygen in water, which has a negative impact on the survival fish communities. 

Due to the changing climate, including both changes in timing and intensity of precipitation events, a reduction on local water availability is expected. As a consequence this increases plant stress due to water deficit. Besides, a further reduction of soil fertility is expected due to the erosive processes caused by high intensity rainfall. Jarabacoa’s Coffee Cluster initially called upon a design to integrate biosystems which generates biogas while treating effluent from coffee pulp production in order to avoid local water contamination. 

In consultation with local actors, the OIA and SSN have also realised the importance of designing systems that could be applied in conjunction with the needs of local communities. This regards both in terms of using its nutrient rich wastewater to boost local productivity and to cope with the declining availability of water due to a changing climate. Acting on the needs of the local communities would increase health indicators which, at present, are mostly affected by poor sanitation that result in an increasing number of water-related diseases. 

The first step in the system is the use of biodigestors to produce biogas for direct consumption for cooking, substituting local wood, as well as for electricity generation. Then, in the second step of the process, the wastewater treatment will provide a nutrient rich polished effluent to irrigate the fields with. These fields consist of mostly coffee crops mixed with banana trees for shading, which results in coffee of superior quality. The banana trees both prevent heat stress to the coffee plants and generate additional income by the production of food and fibres. 

Both crops benefit greatly from the increased fertility and humidity caused by the nutrient rich effluent. The processing of coffee usually takes place when water availability is lower, therefore generating an added benefit of using treated and nutrient-rich wastewater on local crops, reducing the pressure on local resources and increasing local resilience. The system also incorporated coffee pulp for the production of humus for both seedling production, and increased soil fertility.
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2410821/04/2016 11:46Case studyPSI
Private sector
Copa Airlines, Inc.
Caribbean and Central America
Panama
Communities10/05/2022 21:55No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Monitoring and evaluation/M&EWater resources, Ecosystems, Coastal areas/zones, Disaster risk reduction, Infrastructure, Human settlements, Tourism
Roberto Felix
The Panama Bay Wetlands size is 297km2 and constitutes 21% of total Pacific wetlands (Ramsar, 2003). The Panama Bay Wetlands, which act as a natural barrier from climate change impacts for the Tocumen International Airport where Copa Airlines’ Hub is located, have been affected by new constructions in the area, due to lack of awareness about the importance of the ecosystem and lack of supervision from the environmental agencies. This Project wants to introduce the sensitization of the communities impacted on the subject. The goal is to raise awareness in steps of two phases.

First phase: communities outreach 
The focus will be on the communities that live nearby Panama Bay Wetlands. Generally, these people are seen to have the highest risk to be impacted by adverse effects of climate change (i.e. close to both oceans and rivers, which makes them vulnerable to flooding). The areas that are selected for the first outreach to raise awareness are the Tocumen and Juan Díaz areas. 

The schools which will be targeted in these areas are the following:
  1. Elementary and Junior School Centro Básico General Ernesto T. Lefevre.
  2. Elementary School Ricardo J. Alfaro
  3. Junior and High School Colegio Elena Chavez de Pinate 
Total number of people reached: 4616 

The organizations and entities that will be targeted are:
  1. NGO: Asociación Nacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (ANCON), since 1985.
  2. Panama’s Republic Education Ministry 

The following actions will be undertaken to achieve the goals:
  1. Theoretical/practical workshops aimed at students and educational leaders
  2. Monitoring and evaluation workshops
  3. Educational tours for students and teachers to the area of Panama’s Bay wetlands
  4. Competitions in drawing, painting, poetry, song and environmental experience
  5. Mangroves reforestation with the community 

Second phase: sensitization and communication 
The second phase of this project will focus on a wider outreach and creating a general awareness on the importance of the wetland ecosystems and the climate change issue. The following actions will be undertaken to achieve the goals:
  1. Environmental Documentary - Wetlands Protection (Media):10 min to present in Copa flights and national TV
  2. Environmental Capsules: 2 minutes
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2318221/04/2016 10:38Case studyEbA
The process of assessing experiences from the pilot activities and analysing their cost-effectiveness compared with other adaptation measures is an especially important part of the project. These results are fed into national and international discussions. On one hand, these models can be used to plan and implement further ecosystem-based adaptation measures around the world. On the other hand, practical experiences of this kind help to develop and disseminate the concept of ecosystem-based adaptation.
Non-governmental organization (NGO)
The vulnerability assessment produces profiles for the vulnerability to climate impacts and biome stability, socio-economic vulnerability and vulnerability to natural disasters. Pilot activities in the Philippines concentrate on mangrove restoration and sustainable fisheries management, in South Africa on integrating knowledge on ecosystem-based initiatives into policy measures and on wetland terrestrial restoration. The assessment in Brazil is in progress. Specific adaptation measures will be developed based on the research findings. So far project sites for pilot activities in South Africa have been selected on the basis of these profiles.
Conservation International; Germany
Africa, Asia, South America
Brazil; Philippines; South Africa
10/05/2022 21:44No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Water resources, Ecosystems, Coastal areas/zones, Ecosystem-based adaptation
Roberto Felix
Increase the awareness, resilience and adaptive capacity of vulnerable target groups to climate change.
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2320521/04/2016 10:38Case studyEbA
Agroforestry is often considered more acceptable to communities than large scale reforestation, because traditional agricultural commodities can continue to be produced through modification of existing farming practices.
National/public entity, Non-governmental organization (NGO), Research institution
Residents have embraced sustainable activities that conserve and create diverse ecosystems, and, in turn, improve water conservation and filtration. The forest is also easily accessible from Nairobi and has excellent potential for ecotourism.
Africa
Kenya
10/05/2022 21:32No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Birdlife 2009 Partners with Nature: How healthy ecosystems are helping the world’s most vulnerable adapt to climate change. Netherlands: Birdlife.
Adaptation planning and practicesAgriculture, Ecosystems, Ecosystem-based adaptation
Roberto Felix
Kenya’s Kikuyu Escarpment Forest in the country’s central highlands provides water, fuelwood, herbal medicine, and building materials for more than 200,000 local people. The impacts of climate change are already being felt including through recent extended dry periods, resulting in reduced crop yields. An increase in unsustainable activities, such as illegal timber harvesting, overgrazing, and charcoal burning, is thought to be a direct result of reduced crop yields. This has serious consequences, including resource conflicts between communities linked to reduced water levels. The project set out to prevent further forest loss and associated degradation of the services provided by the forest, by helping communities to diversify their livelihoods and in parallel, reducing their vulnerability to climate change.
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2318721/04/2016 10:38Case studyEbA
To date, 35 hectares of forest have been rehabilitated with a mix of local tree varieties, to increase the adaptive capacity of the ecosystem. 42 community residents have found temporary seasonal employment during the forest rehabilitation pilot project. It is expected that this number will increase once the forest ecosystems are restored and the benefits of their services are realized. The project has also focused on education and awareness activities, including a seminar on the ‘Vulnerability of Mountain Forest Ecosystems and Enhancement of Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts’ for media representatives, outreach activities with schools, and other advocacy measures including signboards on the risks of forest fires.
AsiaRegional
Armenia
10/05/2022 21:22No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Communication and outreach/awarenessAgriculture, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
Based on assessments of impacts of climate change, including variability, Armenia’s Syunik forest region has been identified as vulnerable, particularly to the threat of aridification. Some impacts are already being felt, with the expansion of semi-desert and steppe vegetation belts and the decline of the alpine vegetation belt. The goal of the project is to enhance national capacities to adapt to climate change impacts, through the incorporation of adaptation into the forest management framework, to improve climate change resilience of the forests to ensure the forest continues to deliver ecosystem services to local communities (including forest fire prevention and from forest resources).
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2552313/05/2016 12:08Case studyLocal, indigenous and traditional knowledge
This practice is wholly owned and led by local people. Institutions gladly support it at various levels: district development committees, agrovets, village development committees, district agricultural development offices, the Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, and insurance companies. This rich collaboration broadens ownership of the Climate Smart Village model and helps to ensure the sustainability of the project’s impacts. 

Key lessons learned include, but are not limited to:
  1. Ownership of local government is crucial for successful replication.
  2. There is a need to streamline traditional practices in district-based adaptation plans and programs.
  3. Cross-sectoral planning is necessary to avoid duplications and ensure ownership from various departments at the district/local level.
Intergovernmental organization (IGO)
As a result of various interventions, soil fertility was improved thanks to the johlmol technology – produced by the farmers themselves – which lowers the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Other techniques such as crop rotation, mixed cropping, and nitrogen fixation by intercropping are also playing a part in improving soil fertility. Water stress diminished as harvesting methods, and the use of wastewater for kitchen gardens, are making water resources more reliable. In addition, the wide adoption of mulching, by improving soil moisture, lowers the need for watering. As a consequence of greater water availability and soil fertility, agricultural production is increasing sustainably. Energy requirements are reduced by crop residue trials and family-sized biogas plans, which also provide the slurry as a biofertilizer. The replacement of chemical fertilizers and pesticides also has a beneficial impact on the health of both farmers and consumers. 

Furthermore, thanks to the critical information made available to them, farmers are enabled to better manage their resources and assets. In short, households´ resilience was enhanced: many are now insured, reducing their future risks and securing vulnerable assets; and thanks to various technologies, households are relieved from the respective costs of commercial fertilizers and pesticides and extra energy needs. Finally, by raising the awareness and understanding of the community on climate change and its impacts on local agriculture and ecosystems, the project ensures the sustainability of the outreach and better environmental management in the future.
AsiaLocal
Nepal
Communities, Policy makers10/05/2022 21:06No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Financial support, Knowledge management, Socio-economic data and informationAgriculture, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Gender
Roberto Felix
The climate-smart village concept was introduced with the objective of understanding local and indigenous practices to enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers while increasing access to markets and women leadership at the local level. The farmers are introduced to a variety of techniques to improve their agricultural production and livelihoods: 
  • They learned to produce and use a biofertilizer and biopesticide - locally called jholmol, which not only provides nutrients but is also effective in disease and pest control and supports improved plant health. 
  • To address water scarcity, they built small plastic ponds that collect wastewater and rainwater; while the Village Development Committees (VDCs) also work on the conservation of water resources. They tested different crops for variable rainfall patterns, climatic conditions, and locations. 
  • Villagers equip their households with biogas plants and crop residue trial plots; and they provide one day a month for community work in addition to keeping the village clean and collecting the garbage on a regular basis. 
  • Finally, communities received information and support for risk mitigation through insurance and other measures and accessed an SMS notification system that informs them on weather and market prices, as well as technical issues such as pest management, land preparation, irrigation, weeding, fertilizer, and harvesting. Three local schools have also been equipped with meteorological stations, and CSV communities have direct access to government advisory services at the district level.
There is a need of leveraging private sector investment for upscaling and linking the market.​
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2552613/05/2016 12:08Case studyLocal, indigenous and traditional knowledge
In order to support the many components of remote fire management by Aboriginal landholders in the Tanami, a structured process of planning, implementation, monitoring and review has evolved over the last four years. This adaptive management model is integrated with Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) programmes and Aboriginal ranger group work plans to take advantage of existing governance structures, personnel, and resources. 

Five factors have been critical to its success: 
  1. The establishment and enhanced capacity of Aboriginal ranger groups in the region supported under the Working on Country programme of the former DEWHA;
  2. The development of two IPAs in the northern and southern portions of the Tanami, with DEWHA funding support;
  3. The establishment and resourcing of a dedicated fire management position within the Central Land Council (CLC);
  4. The development of a peak Tanami Aboriginal regional fire management body, the Warlu Committee, through research supported by the Natural Resource Management (NRM) Board (NT); and
  5. The strong partnership approach was taken by the CLC and Aboriginal traditional owners, together with the Northern Territory Government, and with Bushfires NT, in particular. 
The Warlu Committee (“Warlu” means “fire” in Warlpiri, the largest language group of the Tanami) consists of two elected representatives from seven key Aboriginal communities and one or more Aboriginal rangers from each. This group provides the strategic direction for fire management on Aboriginal land across the broader Tanami region. Members also sit on IPA management committees and regional fire-planning groups, thus forming a strong link between regional and local planning processes. 

Process of regional fire planning: 
Regional fire planning occurs in five key communities, where groups of 30 to 40 people meet annually to plan and prioritize fire management activities for the coming fire season. The activities under consideration are in addition to traditional burning undertaken by family groups throughout the year in their more accessible country. In places where IPA committees operate, fire-planning workshops are held as part of the larger IPA pre-fire-season planning meetings. The ethos behind these planning meetings is to provide the best available contemporary knowledge, tools and technology to each group, so that they can combine these assets with their traditional knowledge and skills to enable them to make informed fire management decisions. These annual planning workshops identify a selection of prescribed burning and wildfire mitigation activities that are required during the year. These activities, which may include both ground-based and aerial burning, are incorporated into the work programmes of Aboriginal ranger groups, members of which receive training by staff of the CLC and Bushfires NT. Operational costs are met primarily by the CLC, which accesses project-based grant funding from a variety of sources. 

The use of Aboriginal knowledge on fire management fosters cultural maintenance: 
Prescribed burning and wildfire mitigation activities are undertaken as part of the larger body of work for that country, often in combined ‘country’ (cultural) fire trips. The benefits of pooling resources and combining burning activities with cultural maintenance have become very important for effective and strategic fire management practices, providing a familiar framework for traditional owners to re-engage with the broad-scale management of their country. Similarly, land-management activities such as these are important opportunities to facilitate the intergenerational transfer of indigenous knowledge and skills in the country. The older generation of Aboriginal people in this area hold the most knowledge about the impacts of fire on the landscape, how to use it safely, and the physical barriers used to stop its unwanted spread; many of them acquired this knowledge through walking through the country with their parents and grandparents. They understand how best to use fire to keep their land and people healthy. They value the opportunities with which land management presents them to be in the country with their young people, to teach them about fire, and to impart other important cultural knowledge. 

Monitoring and review of the burning activities: 
After the burning season has ended, the results of the year’s activity are reviewed at an annual post-fire-season meeting of the Warlu Committee. At the annual meeting, Aboriginal rangers and members from across the Tanami discuss the fire-related work they have done throughout the year, where they have had successes, and where challenges need to be resolved. The committee provides these groups with feedback and guidance on the following year’s strategies and on how the different groups can work together most strategically. 

The success of the system – benefits for Aboriginal communities: 
This system of planning, implementation, monitoring and review enjoys a high level of participation because it provides Aboriginal people with the opportunity to make decisions about their lands and to work on their own country. More importantly, by using a participatory approach Aboriginal people are able to influence the future of their culture and their children (Walsh and Mitchell, 2002). In the past, fire management programmes have met with only limited success in Central Australia, in large part because of the area’s vastness, a poor level of engagement with indigenous landholders by relevant authorities, and a scarcity of resources available to implement management on this scale (Griffin, 1992). 

However, this new programme has a greater potential for success as a result of new partnerships based on:
  1. Mutual recognition of the role of fire in maintaining biodiversity and its cultural significance to Aboriginal people; and
  2. The level of community ownership and participation. 
Challenges and potential solutions:
  1. To ensure longevity, there remains an ongoing need to continue the development of capacity among local people to take more prominent roles in facilitating the fire management programme across the country in which they live.
  2. Challenge at a policy level where the discord between indigenous and mainstream fire management practices continues to be evident (Vaarzon- Morel and Gabrys, 2008). Government policies that encourage traditional burning (Bird, Bird, and Parker, 2003) and that recognize the nationally significant environmental service it provides would help to reconcile this situation, as would formal recognition of the role of groups such as the Warlu Committee.
  3. Need to resource its operational aspects adequately, in particular, the costly activities of aerial burning and access track construction. These techniques are required both to meet the threshold needed to return fire regimes to a broad-scale traditional patchwork mosaic and to minimize risk. In the future, a GHG market, or a market based on other green and social services, may provide an economy that will fund fire jobs in the country and will meet the operational costs of CBFiM in the Tanami Desert.
  4. Need to fund and support research on the specific long-term biological impacts and benefits of changed fire regimes on different ecotypes in knowledge-poor bioregions. The first and most basic aspect is for fine-scale fire history and vegetation mapping across Central Australia.
  5. Programme participants are still learning how to apply fire on a broad scale to a highly flammable landscape that houses vulnerable ‘islands’ of ecological and cultural significance in contemporary Australia. The ability to manage the risks associated with applying fire at this scale will require increased collaboration with neighbours and so will provide more opportunities and benefits extending well beyond fire management.
  6. Challenge of tailoring the format of review and planning workshops, as well as the language of fire, tools, and techniques, to suit the several dominant indigenous language groups in the region. Programme facilitators, aim to understand better and further benefit from the wealth of traditional fire and country knowledge held by traditional owners. In return, contemporary burning activities themselves will seek to serve better the aspirations of traditional owners for their country and their families, in particular, by making a significant contribution to the transfer of traditional knowledge to future generations of indigenous managers of the Tanami landscape.
UN and affiliated organization
Improved fire management:
  1. Well-resourced and informed ranger groups involved in all aspects of the programme;
  2. Improved relationships between traditional owners and government fire authorities; and
  3. Improved access by Aboriginal people to technical expertise. 
The results of burning activities are monitored through the acquisition and interpretation of satellite images as the burning season progresses, by the use of ‘hotspot’ fire-tracking websites, and through repeat visitations to burnt country. Satellite imagery is used to identify fire scars and areas of high fuel loads, and this information is then used to refine subsequent burning activities. Also, websites such as the North Australian Fire Information service prove invaluable in monitoring the active spread of fires in remote areas. 

Key benefits to the Aboriginal people and their land seen so far include:
  1. Increasing levels of active participation and ownership by traditional owners;
  2. Improved relationships with neighbors of Aboriginal Land Trusts;
  3. Protection of cultural and environmental values, and value of assets such as buildings;
  4. Reinvigorated connection of people with their remote country; and
  5. Increased opportunities for intergenerational knowledge transfer.
An IPA is an area of indigenous-owned land or sea where traditional Aboriginal owners have entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to promote biodiversity and cultural resource conservation. In return, the government agrees to give some support to the traditional owners to carry out the land-management work required to conserve the land’s ecological and cultural value. The North Australian Fire Information service is available at: https://firenorth.org.au/nafi2/​.
Pacific/OceaniaLocal
Australia
Communities10/05/2022 18:47No presence informationNicholas Hamp-Adams
  1. Bird, W., Bird, R.B. & Parker, C.H. 2003. Women who hunt with fire: Aboriginal resource use and fire regimes in Australia’s Western Desert. Arid Lands Newsletter, 54.
  2. Burrows, N. & Christensen, P. 1991. A survey of Aboriginal fire patterns in the Western Desert of Western Australia. In Nodvin, S.C. and Waldrop, T.A., eds., Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives. General Technical Report SE-69. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Experiment Station. 
  3. Burgess, C.P., Johnston, F.H., Bowman, D.M. & Whitehead, P.J. 2004. Healthy country: healthy people? Exploring the health benefits of indigenous natural resource management. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health Indigenous Health, 29(2): 117–22.
  4. Griffin, G. 1992. Will it burn – should it burn?: management of the spinifex grasslands of inland Australia. Desertified Grasslands: Their Biology and Management: 63–76.
  5. Jones, R. 1969. Fire-stick farming. In Australian Natural History, 16: 224–28.
  6. Latz, P.K. 2007. The flaming desert: arid Australia: a fire-shaped landscape. Alice Springs, Australia, Peter Latz.
  7. Vaarzon-Morel, P. & Gabrys, K. 2008 Fire on the horizon: contemporary Aboriginal burning issues in the Tanami Desert, central Australia. GeoJournal, 74(5): 465–476.
  8. Walsh, F. and Mitchell, P. 2002. Planning for country: cross-cultural approaches to decision making on Aboriginal lands. Alice Springs, Australia, Jukurrpa Books/IAD Press.
Adaptation planning and practices, Knowledge managementEcosystems, Community-based adaptation, Disaster risk reduction, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
Roberto Felix
For millennia, Aboriginal people have applied fire to their country to serve a myriad of purposes. Today the indigenous people of the Tanami Desert in Central Australia continue the practice of applying fire to their land systematically and, in so doing, maintain a central strand of their culture and connection with their traditional country. While fire is a part of daily life in desert communities, in mainstream Australia it is gaining recognition as a critical tool for the maintenance and protection of biological and cultural assets. Over the last twelve years, the Central Land Council (CLC) has actively encouraged and supported Aboriginal peoples’ involvement in Community-based Fire Management (CBFiM) in the Tanami region. For the last five years, this programme has had at its core an evolving participatory process with traditional owners of the region that combines traditional and contemporary fire knowledge, practices and technologies in annual cycles of planning, implementation, monitoring, and review. 

Aboriginal knowledge for fire management: 
Aboriginal oral history recorded in songs and stories passed down from generation to generation over thousands of years suggests that fire was applied deliberately, systematically and broadly across much of the Australian continent prior to European colonization. This evidence is supported by the records of nineteenth-century European explorers who routinely recorded fires burning in the landscape (Jones, 1969; Griffin, 1992). It is thought that over tens of thousands of years the biota of the Australian arid interior was modified by its inhabitants, who effectively “farmed” the country with fire (Latz, 2007). This “firestick farming” (Jones, 1969) has created a patchwork mosaic of postfire ages in spinifex-dominated landscapes (Burrows and Christensen, 1991), which has induced a higher level of biodiversity and productivity than would otherwise have occurred. It has also protected the many areas of significant biological and cultural value from the harsh and destructive effects of intense summer wildfires, particularly along travel routes where burning activity was focused (Griffin, 1992). 

Belatedly today, the mainstream scientific and land-management communities have recognized the wildfire prevention and biodiversity values of traditional burning practices. Current practices aim to emulate the pre-European state of widespread fire application both to maintain connection to country and to protect the significant biological values of Central Australia. This case study describes how this goal is being achieved by Aboriginal people of the Tanami Desert, the many challenges involved in doing so successfully and the multiple benefits provided. Project: In response to these issues, a programme of CBFiM has been developed by the Central Land Council together with Northern Tanami Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) management committees, traditional owners and Aboriginal ranger groups, with support from the Northern Territory government body responsible for fire control, Bushfires NT. 

The objective of this programme in the Tanami region is to emulate previous periods of active fire management progressively over extensive areas, in a way that shifts the seasonality of fires back to a pre-European balance. It aims to make the best use of contemporary fire management tools and techniques, community governance structures and a depth of traditional knowledge, all to facilitate effective fire management by remote indigenous peoples across their lands. The programme promotes local ownership of fire management activities and provides an important mechanism for maintaining connection to country and culture, aspects of which are known to have tangible social and health benefits for Aboriginal people (Burgess et al., 2004). The Central Land Council was established under the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 with, among other functions, statutory responsibilities for Aboriginal land acquisition and land management for an area of approximately 780 000 km2 in the southern half of the Northern Territory. The Council comprises 90 Aboriginal people elected from across its vast region, representing some 24 000 Aboriginal people from 15 language groups.
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2324021/04/2016 10:42ToolGender
Global Fire Monitoring Centre
Africa, Asia, Pacific/Oceania
Indonesia
10/05/2022 16:42No presence informationBrian Mayanja
Agriculture, Food security, Health, Community-based adaptation, Gender
Roberto Felix
The role of gender in fire management is often over-looked, but is generally very important. For community based fire management to achieve its goals, the inclusion and direct participation of all sectors of the community, especially women, is fundamental. Women have been shown to be effective at managing fire hazards, improving fire prevention and using fire to protect important natural and cultural assets. Below are some resources concerning a gender-perspective on fire management and the participation of women.
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2892622/09/2020 09:45Case study
UN and affiliated organization
In collaboration with the NDE of Kenya and the TA implementors (UNEP-DTU Partnership and Green Technology Center), the CTCN TA contributed through: 
  1. Prioritisation of three green water technologies in targeted areas
  2. A pre-feasibility study to determine the technical, economic, and social feasibility of the green water technologies for the targeted areas
  3. Identification of potential private sector actors and Public-Private Partnership (PPP) within the water sector for the deployment of the green water technologies
  4. Development of a PPP business model
  5. Development of a draft concept note for up-scaling financial investment. It was expected that the TA would have a significant impact on the sustainable development goals in Kenya through improved water access to underserved communities
AfricaLocal
Kenya
Communities, Policy makers, Private sector09/05/2022 15:11No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Technology supportWater resources
crmmocservices
Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) implemented a technical assistance (TA) supporting Kenya to determine the technical and financial feasibility of low-cost green technologies for improved water services in Northern Kenya and peri-urban areas. 

Direct access to this case study: 
1946NWPSearchableItemgargr@un.orgTechnical document/report
  
2845917/03/2017 12:56Case studyLocal, indigenous and traditional knowledge
Non-governmental organization (NGO)
AsiaLocal, National
Sri Lanka
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners09/05/2022 14:21No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Case studies and articles, and background information available on slycan.net, climatesrilanka.wordpress.com
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Education and training, Knowledge managementAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
No presence informationLaureline Krichewsky
The data collection initiative is multi-faceted in that it is intended to have several outcomes: 
  • Document good practices at the technical level of what would contribute to the national policy on food security and climate adaptation through analysis of methods that will be used by farmers in agriculture which maximizes water resources
  • Minimize salinization and re-use of land or agriculture through use of good practices, and climate resilient varieties of seeds
The outcomes of the data collection are case studies, online articles, and two papers which are being developed: biodiversity based adaptation in agriculture, good practices for climate adaptive agriculture. 

The data is collected on traditional practices that enhance the resilience and reduce impacts of salinization and soil degradation. One of the key ways that have been implemented is the use of toxin free fert​ilizer as an adaptation as well as a co-benefit based effort. In addition to this, the data collection also focuses on ways of using the hay cover as a means of fertilizer, as well as introduction of traditional seed varieties, which are proven as capable of being grown on salinized land, and are flood resilient. Some of these varieties include (very good rice varieties) Pachaperumal, Periavellai, At 303, Adakari, Bg 406 and CO-10 (good rice varieties) Bg 250, At 353, At 362,Modaikarupan, H4, Bg 304 and Morungan.
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2890117/08/2020 17:05Tool
National/public entity
Catalan Office for Climate Change
EuropeSubregional
Spain
09/05/2022 14:05No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Knowledge management, Socio-economic data and informationAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Health, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Energy, Infrastructure
crmmocservices
A global indicator of adaptation was established so that the evolution of Catalonia’s adaptive capacity to the impacts of climate change could be monitored. The conclusions drawn in this document include: “These indicators should be reviewed every five or ten years based on new information available (in order to include more aspects in the synthetic indicator)”. Direct access to the tool: https://canviclimatic.gencat.cat/web/.content/03_AMBITS/adaptacio/Indicador_global/IGA-2018def-ENG.pdf​
1920NWPSearchableItemgborras@gencat.catTechnical document/reportSpain
  
2862701/11/2017 09:40Case studyPartner portal
As a result of applying the principal component analysis, a synthetic adaptation indicator was obtained. This will enable us to monitor the development of Catalonia's capacity to adapt to the impacts of climate change. This synthetic adaptation indicator is determined by two factors that explain 100% of the variability of the original information contained in 29 indicators. Each of these factors corresponds to a different aspect: 
  • Use of resources 
  • Environmental quality
The synthetic adaptation indicator, expressed as the result of both factors, shows a medium level in terms of the capacity to adapt to climate change impacts; just a pass. The evolution of this capacity has been decreasing slightly in recent years (2011 versus 2005). It is important to bear in mind that in order to monitor the synthetic indicators properly, rapid access to the information relating to the original indicators is required. These indicators should be reviewed every five or ten years based on new information available (in order to include more aspects in the synthetic indicator).

It should be noted that biodiversity is the primary source of environmental services, so its effective or poor adaptation to climate change impacts will directly affect the other natural systems and many, if not all, economic systems. Biodiversity has thus far not been included in this quantitative analysis of the adaptation, but its key importance means that a more qualitative evaluation is also needed. The fishing industry was also omitted from the analysis, but for a different reason. 

In this case, there were initially three indicators, but they were rejected during the first selection process because they were largely indirect, since the adaptation measures were highly general. It is necessary to wait until more basic knowledge of the impacts and the most effective measures for combating climate change in this sector is available.
National/public entity
In order to standardize the information, the values of all variables were converted to values of 0 to 1. Using the statistical program Stata, two factors that explained 100% of the variability of the original information were obtained. The first factor explained 61% of the variability and the second factor 39%. The significance of the two factors was interprete​d as follows: the first factor evaluates the use of resources (primarily water and energy), while the second factor evaluates environmental quality (primarily atmospheric emissions). 

Values below -0.8 or above 0.8 were considered to be strong contributions. Finally, to avoid overweighting groups with a greater number of indicators, the influence of each of the 10 groups (systems and sectors) was evaluated. Thus, the weighting of natural systems and socio-economic sectors based on their vulnerability to the impacts of climate change (and in accordance with the ESCACC diagnosis) resulted in the indicators being dividedinto the following five groups, from most to least importance: 
  1. Water management (35%) 
  2. Agriculture and livestock; Forest management; Health (30%, i.e. 10% each) 
  3. Energy (8%) 
  4. Industry, services and trade; Tourism; Urban planning and housing; Mobility and transport infrastructure (24%, i.e. 6% each) 
  5. Research, development and innovation (3%) 
Lastly, within each factor, the weighted value of the indicator is multiplied by the indicator's contribution to the factor and by the value (between 0 and 1) of the indicator during the selected time period (years). By performing this calculation for both factors and for 2005 and 2011, the results are obtained: both factors have a medium value (around 5). In both cases, there was a slight decrease in the year 2011 compared with 2005.
Catalan Office for Climate Change
EuropeRegional
Spain
Academics and scientists, Policy makers09/05/2022 14:01No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
A Global Indicator of Climate Change Adaptation in Catalonia. E. Agell et al. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 W. Leal Filho et al. (eds.), Implementing Climate Change Adaptation in Cities and Communities, Climate Change Management, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-28591-7_10​ (p.191-202)

Monitoring and evaluation/M&EAgriculture, Water resources, Ecosystems, Health, Energy, Infrastructure, Urban resilience, Tourism, Services, Heavy industry
No presence informationChad Tudenggongbu
In Catalonia, there is a strategic framework for planning climate change policies (Catalan Strategy for Adapting to Climate Change 2013-2020, ESCACC) and a demonstration project at Mediterranean Europe level (LIFE MEDACC) that calls for the establishment of a tool to assess the effectiveness of the measures to adapt to climate change impacts. The preliminary work carried out within the framework of both the ESCACC and MEDACC projects has made it possible to reach a sufficiently advanced stage such that the creation of a global indicator of adaptation to climate change impacts in Catalonia. The adaptation evaluation, i.e. the analysis of whether or not Catalonia is making progress in its adaptation to climate change impacts, requires the creation of an indicator with three different levels of integration: 
  1. For the measure, whenever possible 
  2. For each sector and system
  3. For the whole of Catalonia
Four basic criteria must be taken into account when the indicators are created: 
  1. They must be easy to achieve, i.e. the information should be easily available    
  2. There must be historical data on what is measured 
  3. The indicator must be easy to interpret
  4. The information and data must be specific to the Catalan region
A preliminary task to search and select data resulted in a proposal that grouped together a total of 83 potential indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of the adaptation measures. The information included in each indicator was organized in a data-sheet format. The diversity of the indicators and, at the same time, the differences between qualitative and quantitative information for some of these indicators or the lack of time-based consistency of the data meant that it was impossible to respond to the key question: Is Catalonia adapting well to the impacts of climate change? Therefore, a preselection process was conducted. This second selection process was based primarily on the potential capacity of the indicator to quantify the outcome of adaptation actions implemented or in progress (and, therefore, on the effectiveness of the indicator to evaluate the measures). In other words, only indicators that directly measured the outcome of the application of the measure were included while indicators that measured a sector or system's sensitivity or degree of exposure were rejected. Indicators that were more qualitative in nature, such as planning tools that incorporate climate change impacts and adaptation (forestry plan, tourism plan, etc.), were also retained in the preselection process. During this process, the initial 83 indicators were reduced to a set of 50. 

The ultimate aim of the work was to make it possible to determine, in measurable terms, the extent to which Catalonia is adapting to the impacts of climate change. This work entailed a third selection process: only those indicators with a series of historical data based on at least 10 consecutive years were chosen. This process reduced the number of indicators to a total of 29. In order to achieve the objective mentioned above, the most appropriate statistical technique was found to be principal component analysis (PCA), a procedure related to factor analysis. The purpose of factor analysis is to analyse the structure of interrelations between a number of variables (indicators, in our case) and define common dimensions, thus producing a lower dimensional space. Principal component analysis, in particular, aims to reduce the dimensionality of the data matrix in order to obtain a lower number of new variables (Zj) or principal components. 

Thus, the calculation of the first component (or factor) is performed as a linear combination of the original variables that retains the maximum amount of total variance. In the calculation of the second component (or factor), the same procedure is performed (linear combination of the original variables to retain the maximum amount of total variance of the part not included in the first), and so on. Interpreting the components (or factors) is easy in theory, but is usually quite difficult in practice. Each variable (indicator) has a relative contribution to each factor. This contribution expresses the correlation between this variable (indicator) and the factor. A high relative contribution of the variable tells us that there is a strong correlation between this variable and the factor. In other words, it means that this variable is important for the interpretation of the factor. This contribution can be positive or negative, depending on whether that variable increases or reduces the value of the factor.
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2929606/05/2022 13:06Tool
This tool is intended to be a self-assessment tool for Ministries of Education to assess their performance integrating climate risks into their plans, policies and budgets. It provides a clear path on how to increase commitments and expectations around this commitments.
Civil society
United Nations Children's Fund
Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Central America, Europe, North America, Pacific/Oceania, Polar regions, South AmericaGlobal, Local, National
Academics and scientists, Communities, Policy makers, Practitioners, Private sector06/05/2022 13:25No presence informationLilian Daphine LunyoloAdaptation planning and practices, Education and training, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Socio-economic data and informationEcosystems, Ecosystem-based adaptation, Community-based adaptation, Adaptation finance, Disaster risk reduction, Gender
crmmocservices
The role of education systems in the global climate change agenda has been overlooked. ​UNICEF has designed a tool to raise awareness and promote reflection, dialogue, and assessment of progress among national and sub-national level education authorities and their partners about structures and processes to make the education system more climate-resilient. Small-scale and fragmented interventions, as well as ad hoc approaches, are not sufficient to effectively plan for and respond to the multifaceted climate change crisis. A system-wide approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation in the education sector needs to be developed and anchored within national and sub-national education systems under the leadership of the Ministry of Education in each country. This tool was designed for periodic use by personnel from ministries of education and their partners to discuss and assess whether the education system is moving in the direction of increased climate change responsiveness and thus making progress towards climate change mitigation and adaptation goals.

Regionally, UNICEF features the South Asian region through the report- The Heat is On! Towards Climate Resilient Education Systems in South Asia. This regional report was commissioned by UNICEF South Asia, and it represents a shift in how the education sector has been analyzed with regards to climate change risks, moving away from a narrow focus on climate impacts on education infrastructure and on students' attendance, toward a systemic approach on the fundamental role that education systems can – and must – play in the climate change agenda. 

The report further analyses responses to climate change in the education sector;  exploring seven key education systems components: 
  • Policies, plans, and strategies
  • Finance 
  • Curriculum, teaching, and learning 
  • Teacher capacity development
  • Communication, coordination, and partnership 
  • School and community student participation platforms 
  • Monitoring, evaluation, and accountability 
Finally, the report offers key recommendations to make the education systems in South Asia, and globally, more resilient in the face of increasing climate change risks.​
2345NWPSearchableItemGlobal
  
2410721/04/2016 11:46Case studyPSI
Bunge Limited
South America
Colombia
Communities, Policy makers, Private sector05/05/2022 20:00No presence informationLilian Daphine LunyoloAdaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Climate observations, Communication and outreach/awareness, Education and training, Financial support, Impact assessment, Knowledge management, Monitoring and evaluation/M&E, Science and research, Socio-economic data and information, Technology support, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Food security, Water resources, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Coastal areas/zones, Health, Disaster risk reduction
Roberto Felix
Bunge, an agribusiness and food company, funded and implemented the project on the conservation of forests and mangrove cover in coastal regions through economic diversification and integration of local communities in coastal areas of Colombia. 
This case study was featured in the guidebook: mobilizing private sector finance for climate change adaptation where its successes are highlighted as a business case proving the integration of local/aboriginal communities in a multinational value chain while providing both parties with sustainable growth and development.​  

The measures from this project are said to have resulted in a reduction of vulnerability to erosion and sea-level rise, conservation of biodiversity in the coastal region as well as engagement of local communities in a profitable/sustainable way (by introducing the production of cash crops like cocoa, palms, non-timber forest products). The harvest of cash crops is being collected by Bunge for its business purposes, resulting in commercial benefits to the funding agency. 
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2318321/04/2016 10:38Case studyEbA
Project activities like workshops or discussion rounds give policy-makers and other relevant players the necessary knowledge about ecosystem-based management, institutionalize coordination mechanisms for water use and assist in mainstreaming Eba policy into national planning methods. 
A knowledge base on water and climate change context has been developed, which gives an overview of legal and public policy gaps. In 2011 an initial round of local workshops on livelihoods and climate change, IWRM, EbA, and water governance took place. Six demonstration adaptation action plans were established at the pilot intervention sites where EbA theory was put into practice. Multi-stakeholder platforms were established to allow the exchange between scientists and farmers' organizations to improve adaptation practices.

Baseline information and the methodology for pilot site interventions under the EbA approach were presented at international forums and symposiums in the region and worldwide.​ Results were presented internationally at a series of events including World Water Week in Stockholm; IUCN World Conservation Congress in Jeju, the Technical Workshop of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Mexico City, and the Convention on Transboundary Waters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe​

​International Climate Initiative (IKI)

Caribbean and Central America, South America
Mexico; El Salvador; Costa Rica; Panama
05/05/2022 17:35No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity building, Vulnerability assessmentAgriculture, Water resources, Ecosystems, Coastal areas/zones, Ecosystem-based adaptation
Roberto Felix
The project addresses the Bali Roadmap​ call for climate adaptation by building frameworks for governance on climate change responses. Ecosystem-based adaptation measures were implemented in six demonstration projects in five border areas (bi- and trinational) with five countries with an aim of enhancing ecosystem resilience in key watersheds and strengthening the capacity for implementing legislation, policy development and regulatory planning tools for water management as well as improving the governance of transboundary waters through empowerment of community stakeholders.

The project enhanced the statutory instruments supporting responses to climate change. A particular focus was placed on optimising transboundary water resources management. Project activities gave policy-makers and other relevant players the necessary knowledge about ecosystem-based management methods, and institutionalised coordination mechanisms for water use. Furthermore, the project promoted exchange among policy-makers, technical experts, academia and civil society, and carried out pilot activities which tested climate change adaptation instruments in the water sector. This put target countries in a better position to cope with the adverse effects of climate change and engage in integrated ecosystem management and conservation.
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2318421/04/2016 10:38Case studyEbA
Restoration of the Whangamarino Wetlands is calculated to save millions of dollars in disaster prevention through reducing the vulnerability of people to flooding. Co-benefits include recreational activities (tourism, birdwatching, fishing), carbon sequestration, and providing water for irrigation of farmland during dry periods. Challenges include the balancing of objectives. At Whangamarino, a trade-off exists between the increased use of the wetland for flood control and the conservation of other ecosystem values. The site is of considerable biodiversity value and supports large populations of bird species, as well as providing recreational services through fishing. Management objectives need to be carefully assessed to ensure that the impacts of increased flooding (which include increased sedimentation) are balanced against the potential impacts on other ecosystem services.
The restoration of Whangamarino Wetland is a long term programme, although the restored wetlands are already providing benefits. Part of the scheme on the Lower Waikato River has provided water storage functions during large floods, of which there have been several since the restoration programme began in the mid 1990’s. This has resulted into avoided costs in disaster prevention and reduced damage to surrounding farmland.
New Zealand
Pacific/Oceania
New Zealand
05/05/2022 16:33No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo
Adaptation planning and practices, Capacity buildingWater resources, Ecosystems
Roberto Felix
More than 90 per cent of New Zealand’s wetlands have been drained, filled or otherwise destroyed in the last 150 years. A programme of wetland restoration activities was initiated to increase the resilience of the wetland habitats in several areas across New Zealand. This was expected to reduce their vulnerability to multiple threats, including projected increases in rainfall and associated flooding expected as a result of climate change.
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2552413/05/2016 12:08Case studyLocal, indigenous and traditional knowledge
By bringing together indigenous values and local knowledge, and climate change science, together we built trust and worked as partners to create community-relevant action plans and engagement activities.
Non-governmental organization (NGO)
Our participatory approach has allowed us to officially establish the project, to co-sign funding proposals to our provincial government, and to show leadership in a new partnership between a Canadian First Nation and an outside Not for Profit organization. It has also enabled us to develop Tribal specific climate education tools relevant to building knowledge capacity for deeper work to come in climate risk assessment and adaptation planning.
The Resilience Institute
North AmericaLocal
Canada
Academics and scientists, Communities, Practitioners05/05/2022 14:10No presence informationLilian Daphine Lunyolo

​Find more information about the contributor on this website:  https://resilienceinstitute.ca/

Note: Contributing partner was formerly known as The Rockies Institute

Institutional arrangementsFood security, Water resources, Community-based adaptation, Gender, Indigenous and traditional knowledge
Roberto Felix
Phase I of the project was undertaken between 2016-2018 and it focused on Capacity Building through information gathering and education. 

The objectives of this phase included:
  1. Broadly increasing tribal climate change knowledge and skills 
  2. Determining the immediate, medium, and long-term climate risks to the Tribe 
  3. Developing an initial Climate Adaptation Plan- Local Early Action Plan (LEAP) that can be further built upon

Participatory approach: Our method to make use of local, indigenous and traditional knowledge and practices involved co-authoring each part of the initiative.

Through in-person meetings and dialogue, we discussed the immediate and long-term concerns of the Tribe regarding climate change, and also got a baseline for the educational requirements and for the specific requirements by the community members in the group required. Furthermore, there was a commitment to confidentiality in collecting critical, but sacred and sensitive information such as traditional plant use, which was thought to influence land use decisions. 

The Tribe also shared their preferred ways of meeting – including opening and closing prayers and the use of stories to share knowledge. We worked with the Council to ensure that the female members of the Tribe have a voice in the process and in the decision-making. 

This resulted in one of the women taking the lead on the project. This female lead was mentored and further engaged by introducing her to the global climate change arena at the next UNFCCC session as a co-presenter.
NWPSearchableItemlaura@resilienceinstitute.ca
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