Reforestation of initially 30,000 hectares (by 2030) and 400.000 hectares (long-term) of foothill slopes, currently used for low productive wheat production and as pasture land, with native tree species, pistachio (Pistacia vera), almond (Amygdalus communis) and (for barriers for livestock), dog rose (Rosa canina), oleaster (Eleagnus spp.), Thorny almond (Amygdalus spinosissima), to (i) achieve a substantial net greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration, (ii) achieve a comprehensive, country-wide organized transformation to sustainable, low-carbon land-management, (iii) decrease above ground soil erosion of watersheds and improve water retention, (iv) improve soil fertility, and (v) provide sustainable livelihoods to local communities.
Target: Planting of 6 mln pistachio plants by 2030 with a survival rate of min. 90 % self-sustainable trees. For natural pistachio sites a sequestration net-gain of 5.9 tC/ha/a for the first 20 years has been calculated (below ground and above ground biomass); dead wood, litter and soil carbon content is not considered. Accumulated for the first 20 years 118.1 tC/ha)
The age group from 21st to 40th a sequestration net-gain of 1.3 tC/ha/a has been calculated (accumulated for the subsequent years sums up to 25.9 tC/ha),
age group III 41st to 80th year accumulated 16.1 tC/ha,
age group IV 81st to 100th year accumulated 5.3 tC/ha,
age group V 101st to 140th year accumulated 4.0 tC/ha
age group VI 141th to 160th year accumulated 0.6 tC/ha.
As overall sequestration target of a subsequent NAMA implementation assuming 30,000 ha of natural like plantations (90 % survival rate) starting by 2015 and accounting 2030 is 3,537,000 tC.
- Development of a complete land inventory on Uzbekistan’s mountain regions, altitude between 600-1.400 m
The complete land inventory will:
- Describe in detail the historic (1990, where possible) and present land use (using GIS and remote sensing techniques);
- Provide an agricultural practice and water and soil impact assessment;
- provide a comprehensive socio-economic stakeholder mapping; and
- provide a legal title/land-tenure analysis.
- Development of a comprehensive Reforestation and Forest Farming Plan
The Reforestation and Forest Farming Plan will:
- define appropriate tree species in line with available planting manuals and ecologic-economic analysis (as per above) for all areas involved;
- lay out a sustainable forest farming and land-use strategy with production and distribution details;
- prepare the establishment and business procedures for 5-6 NAMA Distribution Centres (providing and disseminating planting technology, inoculate material and other, and a training-program), building on the practice of the Gallya Aral, Andizhan and Tashkent Provinces farmers support station;
- Building on existing projects, establish a financing plan (farmer compensation until the first harvest) consisting of a mixture of tax rebates, direct seed financing and the potential for international crediting to support domestic funding;
- Provide a legal title implementation plan (securitization of sustainable forestry use by giving long-term leasing contracts to farmers);
- Lay out a measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) system for the NAMA (including a methodological framework);
- Lay out an anti-leakage monitoring and risk management strategy;
- Set out the NAMA (AFOLU) governance and institutional structure; and
- Define a pace of implementation (with milestones and cash flow arrangements)
- Sustainable land-use and reforestation suitability tool
The sustainable land-use and reforestation suitability tool will for each site under consideration for NAMA implementation:
- build on existing studies and provide (or update) an ecologic-economic land-use analysis of current and future practices;
- make a soil fertility, water availability and sustainable usage assessment;
- assess different native tree species for their environmental, soil, farming and sustainable forest management impact;
- provide a comprehensive leakage analysis; and
- engage with central and local government, farmers’ associations and civil society on NAMA design options: tree species, harvest/farming options, value chain, marketability of farming products including certification, land-use change incentives, environmental protection (protection (special regards to biodiversity)).
- Development of finance and operations facilities
The finance and operation facilities will:
- support the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (Main Department of Forestry) in the implementation of the NAMA;
- provide advance payments, loans or export guarantees to farmers/traders;
- oversee the timely planting, maintenance and tree protection;
- advice the harvesting/farming and marketing activities;
- provide the measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) for the NAMA; and
- facilitate international funding flows (sourcing, distribution), in addition to state funding.
- Dissemination and Up-Scaling until 2030
Building on early pilots developed as stand-alone rain fed mountain belt regeneration or pistachio re-vegetation projects (http://sgp.uz), the NAMA will follow an ambitious implementation schedule (2.000 ha per annum in average), coordinating the national roll-out with support activities by different governmental bodies (Ministries of Economy, Trade, Environment, Finance, municipal authorities, other) with farmers’ association and business. The pilot sites (of +/- 100 hectares each) will be selected as follows: (1) Buffer zone of either Ugam Chatkal National Park, Zaamin National Park, or an area to be established as buffer zone in proximity of Hissar Zapovednik to secure involvement of the local population, local authorities (hokimiyat) and protected area administrations. It is to promote sustainable land-use strategies under a clearly defined “test umbrella” to scale up under national and regional administration; (2) a region chosen for its support by local stakeholders.
The advantage of the approach for its self-sustaining sustainability is its proven and calculated economic beneficial effects for individual farmers in comparison with current conventional land use practices in the rainfed mountain belt of Uzbekistan. The following information outlines perspectives of a subsequent NAMA implementation phase.
The farmer/investor has 4.120 USD investment costs for the first 10 years per ha (maximum amount – by min 5 ha investment costs decrease by 50-80%). For a detailed breakdown:
1.350 USD for one ha
2nd year operational costs (incl. watering and fertilizer) apprx. 30% 450 USD (per ha and year)
3rd year (incl. grafting) 700 USD (per ha)
From 4th to 10th year on 270 USD (per ha per year)
Profitability (in average for a period of 18 years)*
*Basing on calculations of Rudenko, I., Kudrat, N. and Volkov, A. (Tashkent, 2011), Economic Analysis of Pistachio Plantations; Chernova G.M., Nikolyai L.V., Rakhmonov A.M., Tulyaganov T.E, and Volkov, A. (Tashkent, 2014), Recommendations for Growing Pistachio Varieties as Gardening Plants in Uzbekistan. (in uzbek)
As income from pistachio harvesting kicks in only after several years, the pre-financing through a (concessional) loan or loans is envisaged. Domestic banking institutions such as Agrobank are expected to act as national interface with international funding sources.
Initially two (2) million USD, then gradually more up to around eight (8) million USD upfront capital annually will be needed over the first 10 years. Overall capitalization costs are estimated at eight (8) million USD from Year 3 to Year 15.
 Rudenko, I., Kudrat, N. and Volkov, A. (Tashkent, 2011), Economic Analysis of Pistachio Plantations; Chernova G.M., Nikolyai L.V., Rakhmonov A.M., Tulyaganov T.E, and Volkov, A. (Tashkent, 2014), Recommendations for Growing Pistachio Varieties as Gardening Plants in Uzbekistan. (in uzbek)