- A Overview
|A.2||Title of Mitigation Action||
|A.3||Description of mitigation action||
As part of Colombia´s commitments before United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, Colombia started to develop its National Strategy for Reduced Emissions from Defoestation and Degradation since 2009 with the support of international cooperation and the participation of local insti-tutions, communities and civil society.
In 2018, the strategy named “Bosques Territorios de Vida” was officially launched as the national strategy for control deforestation and forest management. This strategy also responds to the polit-ical mandate of halting deforestation stated in the CONPES 3700, as well as in the National Devel-opment Plan (Articles 170 and 171).
The strategy “Bosques Territorios de Vida”, proposes actions against deforestation, degradation and associated GEI and promoting the management of forests upon an integral and sustainable approach for rural development. This will help to increase the quality of life of rural populations, as well as the local development and the ecosystem´s resilience against climate change effects (miti-gation and adaptation). To do so, the strategy propels an economy based on forest goods and services focused on an integral rural development and the brake of agricultural expansion.
The development of an economy based on forest goods and services, as proposed in the national strategy, requires mechanisms to meet a balance between social and ecological functions of eco-systems. This implies to consider a landscape approach where a mix of activities are established in response to the ecological and socio economic needs of populations living in the area of interven-tion. In that sense, as contemplated in the national strategy, the territorial approach to stop defor-estation includes different alternatives of tree based systems (TBS) such as sustainable forest man-agement, forest plantations and agroforestry, together with ecological restoration and conserva-tion, to be realized in accordance with the soil aptitude, local conditions and societal and economic scenarios of prioritized regions.
The Forestry NAMA offers a strategic framework to implement, in an integrative way, forest miti-gation actions for productive and ecological purposes framed in the National strategy. This frame-work will serve to direct efforts and decision making processes across levels, starting from the na-tional view of the territory to the analysis of local conditions that will help to determine concrete models of intervention. In addition, the Forestry NAMA aims at creating enabling conditions to monitor, report and verify the impact of the mitigations actions as well as to identify financing gaps and opportunities for bridging this gap (i.e. specific projects, resources reallocation, engage-ment of private sector among others).
|A.6||Type of action||
|A.7||Greenhouse gases covered by the action||
- B National Implementing Entity
- C Expected timeframe for the implementation of the mitigation action
- D Currency
|Conversion to USD: 1
- E Cost
|E.1.1||Estimated full cost of implementation||
|E.1.2||Comments on full cost of implementation||
This cost includes all the implementation phases of the Forestry NAMA from the initial preparation phase until the implementation of actions as well as the monitoring and following up phase. This phases are divided into three periods as follows:
Phase I. PREPARATION PHASE (3 years): Corresponds to the initial preparation of activities. It includes the creation of the Coordination Committee of the Forestry NAMA. This Committee will set up the basic elements to consider in the action plans, carry out yearly reviews of project’s indicators, actions and impacts, and will rec-ommend and adopt actions to ensure that the NAMA stays on track and delivers its outcomes.
This initial phase mostly focuses on the coordination of activities at the national level by engaging relevant institutions and stakeholders. Activities, at this phase, seek for a coordinated implementation of landscape guidelines and orientations to carry out forest restoration activities harmonizing productive and ecological policies as well as ecosystemic functionalitites. Activities under this phase consider professional services, workshops, information campaignes, socialization and other managerial costs.
Phase II. IMPLEMENTATION PHASE (6 years): During this phase most of the territorial activities will take place. This includes a consolidation of the territorial team that will lead the socialization, discussion and implementation of landscape guidelines with territorial stakeholders (institutions and communities) for the restoration activities. In addition, there is a technical team that will perform technical advisory functions for the implementation of TBS systems in selected areas of deforestation hotspots. The selection of areas of interventation will be defined based on a set of national, regional and local criteria properly discussed and agreed. Implementation of TBS systems include activities such as conservation and sustainable forest management, restoration, agroforestry systems (including silvopastoril systems, commercial reforestation and protector-productive reforestations). Estimation of costs of these activities are calculated based on the goals of the National Strategy “Bosques Territorios de Vida” that define a number of hectares of interventation for each modality.
In addition, during this phase there will be inquiries in the territory in order to identify particular needs susceptible to become forestry bankable projects. An amount of money is budgeted to conduct such investigations and for the formulation of at least 40 territorial projects. These projects should be identified in the frame of the landscape restoration guidelines and orientations followed in the forestry NAMA.
Here is also included the development of education and capacities building programs directed to public and private stakeholders at the territorial level as well as to local actors, focused in enhanc-ing capacities for the establishment and maintenance of TBS models. This includes the establishment of agreements or associative initiatives in the regions.
Phase III. MONITORING PHASE (3 years): This phase corresponds to the monitoring and following up actions to keep the progress in track. Part ot the budget assigned to this phase will be executed in the preparation phase with the purpose of identifying, gathering and processing necessary information for the calculation of the baseline and the Forestry NAMA scenario, in a standardized way. Also, during the implementation phase, MRV costs will be essentially destinated to identify variables, application of forms protocols and procedures in order to get the input of information from particular projects in a platform. The third phase corresponds to the continuous processing and analysis of information captured; here, data processing is conducted in order to measure progress based on the Forestry NAMA indicators, as well as other initiatives derived from international commitments. In the final phase, information is reported to consolidate reports that are designed depending on the audience. Along the information flow, processes of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) can be carried out for feedback and improvement of the system in general. Then, this phase also includes a longer term of monitoring with minimal intervention in order to evaluate continuity once intervention activities of the Forestry NAMA have finished
|E.2.1||Estimated incremental cost of implementation||
|E.2.2||Comments on estimated incremental cost of implementation||
Incremental costs of the Forestry NAMA are defined as the difference between regular investments (public, international and privates sources) allocated to forest activities (implementation of TBS) and the total costs for the NAMA implementation. Base line of regular investments were taken from the financial MRV, compiling the budget executed in activities of restoration, reforestation, agro-forestry and silvopastoril. Gathered data was used to calculate an annual average of investment from the period between 2011 to 2016 which is around US 59 millions. This was considered the average amount of investment in Forestry activities that was extended for the nine years of implementation of the Forestry NAMA and therefore, set as baseline.
The Forestry NAMA responds to the implementation of the National Strategy “Bosques Territorios de Vida” issued during the first semester of 2018. Main contribution of the Forestry NAMA is in-tending to guide forest investments upon a landscape arrangement; guidelines designed and implemented in the Forestry NAMA seek for a change from scattered interventions to a more integrated type of intervention of the landscape looking for sinergies, collaboration and probably, economies of scale. The Forestry NAMA will accomplish these purposes by enabling national and territorial working bodies that will engage with relevant actors at the different levels of decision making process. Furthermore, The Forestry NAMA will contribute to conceptualize what is considered a landscape forest restoration by determining a set of criteria to bear in mind at the national, regional and local levels. In that sense, the financing need of the NAMA beyond the base line, is considered as the incremental cost of implementation that I looking for support
- F Support required for the implementation the mitigation action
|F.1.1||Amount of Financial support||
|F.1.2||Type of required Financial support||
|F.1.3||Comments on Financial support||
In accordance with the National Strategy and the directions given in the Forestry NAMA, the country is looking for the implementation of forest restoration activities upon a landscape arrangement based on the establishment of sustainable production systems through a variety of TBS. However, considering that the NAMA also looks for the harmonization of the social and the ecological functions of ecosystems, productive activities need to be carried out based on a set of criteria that guarantee keeping a balance between these two types of functions. This is particularly relevant when the selection of susceptible areas for productive and ecological purposes causes (social and economic) asymmetries between communities from one and other places.
In that sense, the Forestry NAMA looks for a financing structure that enable productive activities by using the least possible concessionality with the combination of multiple instruments such as concessional loans, equity, guarantee, loan (for private) among others. Definition of the type of instrument to apply, will depend on the type of actor to approach according to the productive sys-tem. On the other hand, ecological activities (conservation and restoration) will definitely require more concessional resources from external sources (in the form of grant or RBP) or schemes of payments for environmental services from productive activities depending on ecological services “upstream”
|F.2.1||Amount of Technological support||
|F.2.2||Comments on Technological support||
Technological support will be used for improvements and development of the MRV system to continuos upgrading of the system towards increase the level of detail for monitoring, verifying and reporting the different types of forest interventions (TBS) viable upon a landscape approach.
|F.3.1||Amount of capacity building support||
|F.3.2||Type of required capacity building support||
|F.3.3||Comments on Capacity Building support||
The Forestry NAMA looks for an enabling environment that operates as an overall framework within which institutions and individuals operate. The establishment of such framework requires not only strengthening capacities of individuals, sectors and institutions, but also, creating and enhancing relationships among them. From a higher scale, this will require several workshops and capacity building processes at the national level. In addition, and given that the technical considerations for the forestry NAMA respond to regional and local scales as well, same processes will be needed at other levels of decision.
- G Estimated emission reductions
- H Other indicators
|H.1||Other indicators of implementation||
The targets are related to national policies and sectoral estrategies.
- I Other relevant information
|I.1||Other relevant information including co-benefits for local sustainable development||
Economic co benefits
The Forestry NAMA generates different economic benefits over time. In the short term, investments on restoration will create direct jobs. Indirect economic co benefits will also be created through Conservation Agreements and Payments for Environmental Services (PES). Furthermore, investments in the NAMA will benefit budget deficit of financial instruments available for the forestry sector
In the medium term, activities of the NAMA will generate income from the establishment and use of forest plantations and other productive systems (agroforestry and silvopastoril), without considering any economic multiplier effects that may arise from the increased of such economic activities along the value chain of products and sub products.
In the longer term, the NAMA is expected to produce other economic benefits as increased agricultural resilience, with the restored or planted forests providing rural activities with protection against extreme climate events. This is an indirect effect of the increase of resilience due to the re-covering of ecosystems by reinstating forest uses.
Social co benefits
Activities of the NAMA will be carried out on rural areas of Colombia according to the prioritization of deforestation hotspots. Rural population of Colombia is represented by 2,7 million of farmers from which 530.000 are head households with a male predominance (77%). In general rural population of Colombia is living under high poverty levels: poverty (-46%) and extreme poverty (22,1%) . Such conditions prevent rural populations of developing best productive practices keeping them behind in the economic growth. In addition, this population generally has a very basic level of education which also diminishes possibilities for implementing new productive alternatives and for increasing efficiencies of traditional practices. For these reasons, rural population are particularly targeted for strengthening capacities intended to improve economic development.
Activities in the Forestry NAMA tackle some of the bottle necks of rural populations. In principle, the development of a forestry economy helps to create capacities by spreading knowledge in forest management and other sustainable practices. This will empower the local communities where the NAMA is placed and will improve practices on forest uses, creating alternatives for income generation. Furthermore, in a larger scale of analysis, restoration activities also improve the quality of life of rural populations by maintaining and enhancing the provision of ecosystem services such as: water supply, air quality and the production of forest products. Moreover, social co-benefits take into account the participation and capacity building of women and youth as key players in the commercial reforestation and ecological restoration activities of the community, following the gen-der approach and social inclusion.
Environmental co benefits
Environmental co benefits from the NAMA are analyzed from two perspectives that together con-tribute to its crosscutting character. On one side, the NAMA offers an interesting mitigation potential by contributing to around 25.2 million Tons CO2 eq. This contribution causes positive impacts on the climate system at the local and the global levels. In addition to that, indirectly the NAMA is also reducing the net rate of deforestation due to the enhancement of carbon stocks in forestlands and more productive systems.
Protective – productive restoration as well as ecological restoration generate a wide range of environmental co benefits as they reinstate uses in transformed forestlands. Such benefits are difficult to quantify and measure, but the NAMA seeks to make visible contributions on hydrological services, erosion control and soil formation, nutrient cycling and waste management, biodiversity conservation and raw materials supply. All these improvements will contribute towards an in-creased resilience of ecosystems, becoming in themselves, important climate change mitigation and adaptation measures.
Reinstating the forest use of pastures, for example, has been proven to have positive effects in the hydrological regulation at the local level, working together with trees to increase soil infiltration and therefore, reduce runoff water, and erosive processes generated by them. To evaluate this effect, it is possible to analyze the change in the domestic water supply in accordance with the methodology of the National Water Study conducted by IDEAM. The effects on soil formation and nutrient cycling are linked to the improvement of degraded lands by reinstating forest uses; this generates positive impacts on the productivity of the soil and reduces the exposure of bare lands to climate events. In addition, some studies have shown that the maintenance of forest habitats has a direct impact on biodiversity conservation including genetic pools and provisioning of food and raw materials.
- J Relevant National Policies strategies, plans and programmes and/or other mitigation action
|J.1||Relevant National Policies||
Rules on the National Forest Economy and Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources - Creation of Forest Reserve Zones
National Code of Renewable Natural Resources and Protection of the Environment.
Forestry Action Plan
Creation of the Ministry of Environment and organization of the National Environmental System
Adoption of the Convention on Biodiversity
Adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Creation of the Forest Incentive Certificate (CIF)
National Policy of Forests
National Plan of Forest Development
Policy to stimulate national reforestation in Colombia: 2003-2006
Guidelines for the Consolidation of the National System of Protected Areas
National Policy for Water Management
National Development Plan "Prosperidad para Todos"
Institutional Strategy for Action and Policy articulation for Climate Change in Colombia
Creation of the Administrative Special Unit of National Natural Parks
National Policy for Management of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
National Policy for Integral Management of Soil
National Plan of Restoration
National Development Plan "Todos por un Nuevo País"
Statutory compilation of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (including the forest use regulation)
National Climate change Policy
National Determined Contribution
|J.2||Link to other NAMAs||
- K Attachments
- L Support received
|L.1||Outside the Registry||
|L.2||Within the Registry||