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Partnership with International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
Download HKH subregional profile
​A) Priority Setting Workshop:​
As part of the implementation of the Lima Adaptation Knowledge Initiative (
LAKI), UNFCCC/NWP and UN Environment organized a priority-setting workshop for the Hindu Kush Himalayan sub region from 20-22 October 2016 in Sri Lanka with the support of the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). The event was organized in parallel with the workshop for the Indian Ocean islands sub region and back to back with the Asia Pacific Adaptation Network forum. ​

A multidisciplinary stakeholder group of core experts discussed and agreed to a pool of 16 priority adaptation knowledge gaps for the sub region through a multi-criteria analysis approach. Participants also provided a preliminary list of potential response actions, noting concrete deliverables and target beneficiaries, and provided advice as to the best-placed organisations to undertake such responses.​ 

Click here to view ICIMOD's summary of the event

Read the f​ull workshop report.

B) Priority Adaptation Knowledge Gaps and Actions Undertaken to Close the Priority Knowledge Gaps:


Thematic area

Gap Description


Knowledge user

Actions Undertaken to close the Priority Gaps



Limited access to adequate, locally usable knowledge and information on weather and seasonal forecasting to assist farm production operations

Lack of access [2]

​​Extension workers, national hydro-met services, agriculture experts​

 ICIMOD's addresses the challenge of limited access to locally usable knowledge through the GRAPE program in Nepal. Outputs include flyers, case studies, and videos targeting farmers groups, local extension officers, government entities, and research institutes. Learn more here​.  

CEAPRED's  overcomes barriers to accessing critical weather and seasonal forecasting knowledge for farm production. Output includes final reports, case studies, and videos, serving extension workers, national hydro-met services, and agricultural experts.   

Beijing Climate Centre's mitigates the lack of accessible local knowledge by facilitating the WMO Third Pole Regional Climate Centre Network and providing operational climate prediction products, verification of long-range forecasting products, seasonal climate bulletin, and Third Pole Climate Forum. It supports agricultural extension workers, policymakers, and UNDRR, among others. Learn more here.  

APN's addresses knowledge gaps in weather and seasonal forecasting through community-based scientific capacity building, integration of indigenous knowledge, and strengthening science-policy linkages​. Outputs include vulnerability and impact assessments, and climate field schools, benefiting indigenous peoples, governments, researchers, and NGOs.  



Weak dissemination of evidence and successful water management practices, adaptation technologies, and water allocation and management during periods of scarcity and abundance

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]

Water resource planners, policymakers, communities project managers

Graduate students from Yale University  (Yale School of the Environment), in partnership with NWP partners IUCN and The Mountain Institue, explored historical and ancestral practices for water management in Nepal to understand what practices exist, how they differ with seasonal dry and wet climate patterns, and how that knowledge is or can be utilized for policy makers to integrate into national adaptation planning proce​sses. Find the case study here.

 ICIMOD focuses on offering capacity-building trainings on spring shed conservation in Nepal and piloting flood-resilient ecological sanitation toilets in India. Output includes actionable knowledge on water availability and quality, enabling practitioners and communities to manage watersheds effectively. 

ICCAD Bangladesh has initiated the Climate-Resilient Livelihood Improvement and Watershed Management in Chittagong Hill Tracts Sector Project. The main outputs consist of creating a local resilience plan, implementing resilient livelihoods, and building capacity. The initiative benefits water resources planners, policymakers, project managers and the community. Learn more here.  

Aaranyak's Projects Projects focus on documenting local adaptation strategies to climate-induced water stress, governance of flood mitigation structures, and developing community resilience to disaster and climate risk. Output includes research papers, grey literatures targeting communities, researchers, and adaptation planners. 

ICLEI South Asia's Integrates water security into climate change adaptation for efficient water conservation while safeguarding livelihoods and ecosystems. Output includes reports, publications and case studies. This benefits local bodies, public health, urban planners, village development offices, and water supply departments. 

APN's Climate-Smart Agriculture Projects supports the integration of geospatial technologies in climate-smart agriculture planning and management in South Asia including enabling grants for research. Outputs include spatial datasets, assessment reports, training manuals, and conducting capacity-building workshops to increase awareness and practical capacity among stakeholders. 

BRAC's  collects precise water usage and rainfall data, sharing successful water conservation practices, and promoting technologies like rainwater harvesting systems. The output including access to the tools and knowledge​ to adapt and respond to adverse climatic impacts benefits Local government, and local entrepreneurs. 



Lack of access to awareness-raising products and early warning systems for multiple hazards (drou​ght, landslide, debris flow, flooding, glacier lake outburst flood in the Himalayas and downstream communities)

Lack of access [2]

Early warning system designers, town and provincial planners/watershed managers, communities

A) Graduate students from Harvard University (John F. Kennedy School of Government) together with a NWP partner ICIMOD  produced actionable and feasible policy recommendations:
1) An in-depth policy analysis report that analyzes barriers and solutions to early warning systems for multiple hazards in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.
2) A policy brief to inform policy-makers on the key benefits, mechanics and implementation considerations for the Community-Based Flood Early Warning System. Further details are available on the case study here.

B) ICIMOD has strengthened community-based flood early warning systems across river tributaries in Afghanistan, India, Nepal and Pakistan to increase access to awareness-raising knowledge products in vulnerable communities  

Practical Action's Initiative focus on risk reduction, emphasizing community engagement and the crucial role of women, offering a replicable model for similar regions. Their Outputs include an Early Warning System (EWS) strategic action plan and success stories. The initiative targets local and provincial governments, farmers, stakeholders, technology users, and local non-governmental organizations.  

Aaranyak's Projects enhances community resilience to floods by facilitating integrated flood management and providing flood early warning in selected rivers in Assam, India. Output include publications

ICLEI South Asia's IAdapt Tool addresses knowledge gaps by developing Catchment Management Plans (CMP) for rural and urban water resources management and prepares  Multistakeholder Platform (RURBAN) to convene stakeholders. The initiative produces frameworks​ to support local government, urban and rural experts and communities. 



Inadequate information and knowledge on adaptation options and technologies suitable to address context-specific climate extremes, impacts and risks for agriculture and the net effect of climate change at the local level

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]

Farmers, extension agencies

district agriculture officers and experts, technology users, policymakers, local non-governmental organizations 

ESCAP's addresses inadequate information on agriculture adaptation options and technologies, providing decision support tools , online tool, reports and a learning portal. The initiative targets policymakers, researchers, development partners, and civil society organizations. 

Policy Lab's fosters collaboration between traditional knowledge and scientific research. Outputs include local knowledge hubs promoting climate-resilient economic growth and addressing bottlenecks in agricultural production and marketing. The initiative impacts farmers, local government, experts, and local non-governmental organizations.  

Practical Action's  IBFI initiative in Nepal addresses the lack of knowledge regarding challenges related to stakeholder knowledge, data availability, and the need for financial mechanisms to cope with climate-induced risks. Their output is the development and distribution of Index-based flood insurance​.  



Limited access to weather and seasonal forecasting data for public health preparedness (heat waves, cold waves, thunderstorms, disease epidemics)

Lack of access, Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [Mix]​

Health professionals and public

​NHRC's endeavors to enhance public health preparedness for climate-sensitive diseases in Nepal. Output includes a website by MOHP that focuses on climate change and health, serving as a resource hub for the public, academic community, civil society, non-governmental organizations, and policymakers.  

ICLEI South Asia's initiative facilitates the development of climate-resilient city action plans with a step-by-step guide to impact local government, urban communities and municipalities. Outputs include the Climate Resilient CITIES Action Plan (CRCAP)​ tool, which allows adaptation to different scopes without requiring customization for a specific system.  



Limited access to traditional knowledge and indigenous knowledge on agricultural adaptation

Lack of access [2]

Village elders, farming families, researchers, policymakers, agricultural extension workers, civil society organizations

​ICIMOD’s initiative tackles limited access to traditional knowledge in agricultural adaptation via the GRAPE program, aiming to enhance agricultural resilience. Outputs encompass flyers, peer-reviewed papers, case studies, and videos. These outputs are valuable resources for agricultural experts, policymakers, and farmers. Find the case study here

CEAPRED enhances agricultural systems' resilience by incorporating traditional and indigenous knowledge. Through the Center for Environmental and Agricultural Policy Research Extension and Development, CEAPRED produces reports, case studies, and knowledge products​ for farmers, local government, private companies, and extension agents.  



Poor translations of climate data and models into understandable formats

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]

National–subnational planning departments, project managers, community leaders and members

UNESCAP Early Warning for All, project mitigates potential transboundary disaster management by updating the Multi-hazard Risk Map, foster transboundary synergies​, and enhancing the capacity of national and subnational planning departments. This benefits project managers and community leaders.  



Lack of awareness/sensitization among public and media about climate change health impacts and adaptation/response measures

Lack of access [2]


NHRC aims to drive a more informed and proactive response to climate-related health challenges. Their outputs, including education, engagement, and advocacy efforts, include the development of IEC/BCC materials ,learning portal and training modules regularly broadcasted through radio and television programs, facilitating smooth training sessions to reach the public. 



Limited understanding of traditional knowledge and indigenous knowledge on agricultural adaptation

Lack of access [2]

Climate negotiators, policymakers

BRAC addresses the limited understanding of traditional and indigenous knowledge on agricultural adaptation. Outputs include the establishment of adaptation clinics offering free advice and services on crop selection and farming practices, the development of new crop varieties resistant to changing conditions, the provision of storage solutions for farmers, and assistance with weather forecasting and market connections. These clinics are designed to support farmers in coping ​with the impacts of climate change, leveraging local knowledge to sustain agriculture. 



Knowledge on how climate change is impacting on water source/usage/availability/quality (including sanitation/water treatment/water inputs for energy/springs and natural wells, groundwater, spring water and glaciers)

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]

Watershed planners, settlement planners/energy planners, community leaders and civil society project managers

ICIMOD has coordinated capacity-building trainings on sprinshed conservation  in Nepal and piloted flood-resilient ecological sanitation toilets in India to provide actionable knowledge on water availability and quality – knowledge that practitioners and communities need to manage watersheds effectively in a changing climate

ICCCAD offers valuable insights into accessing and managing water within local communities. Outputs include, climate resilient women entrepreneurship success stories , capacity enhancement, and knowledge generation. This initiative aims to positively impact both local government staff and community leaders. 

ESCAP address how climate change impacts water sources, usage, availability, and quality. Outputs include reports and discussions at the ESCAP 79th Commission Session and side events, along with a 2-page summary of key data and recommendations​.  ESCAP aims to reach resources planners, community leaders, and civil society project managers. 


Forestry and biodiversity


Knowledge gap on methodologies and tools to quantify the impact of climate change on ecosystem services 

Lack of tools/methods [4]



Researchers, academics

​Chittagong University, Bangladesh address gaps in effective forestry practices and sustainable land management. Outputs include research and policy documents covering climate stresses, carbon sequestration, future forest visualization, and forestry practices' externalities and locally led adaptation hub.  

RECOFTC  initiative on Trees and Bees​ enhance forest cover and improve livelihoods sustainably. Outputs include enhancing forest health, decreasing reliance on cash crops, generating income, and bolstering ecological and community resilience. The initiative targets farmers, experts, extension agencies, government, media and civil society. 

G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment (NIHE) enhances understanding of climate change impacts and required adaptation actions. Outputs includes policy documents and reports​. It targets researchers, academics, policymakers, planners, forest managers, and community members.  



Lack of understanding/evidence of potential health co-benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures in various sectors

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]


​ESCAP addresses the lack of understanding and evidence of health co-benefits in climate change measures across sectors. Outputs include policy guides, policy dialogues, and side events. The initiative targets policymakers, researchers, development partners, and civil society organizations. 

NHRC initiative addresses the gap in understanding health co-benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation. Outputs include the implementation of H-NAP (2017-2022) and the approval process for H-NAP (2023-2030)​, targeting policymakers to impact health professionals and the public. 


Forestry and biodiversity​

Lack of adequate knowledge on the effects of climate change on biodiversity

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]

Researchers, academics, policymakers, community members

Aaranyak (Partha Jyoti Das) addresses climate change's impact on wetland ecosystems. Outputs include workshps, events, policy input, technical reports, and research papers on the project theme. Their target audience includes researchers, academics, wetland authorities, governments and community members.  

G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment (NIHE), repackages existing knowledge to address actionable knowledge gaps. Output consists of research papers, articles, publications and electronic training materials​. They aim to reach researchers, academics, policymakers, planners, forest managers, and community members. 


Forestry and biodiversity

Need for repackaging the baseline data on the effects of climate change for forests and biodiversity for different target groups

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]

Researchers, academics, practitioners

Aaranyak repackages baseline data on climate change effects for forests and biodiversity. Outputs include an Integrated Wetland Management Plan, a socioeconomic and livelihood assessment for Doloni and Deepor Beel, and a technical report ​


Forestry and biodiversity

Insufficient information on local indigenous knowledge on forest management

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]

Researchers, academics, practitioners, community members

Chittagong University, Bangladesh addresses the knowledge gap in local indigenous forest management. Outputs consist of national documents, reports, articles in peer-reviewed journals, books, newspapers, and websites.​ The initiatve benefits academics, practitioners who can impact local indigenous people, and government officials.  

Beijing Climate Centre addresses knowledge gaps on climate change's impact on snow cover water sources. Outputs include snow cover monitoring products​, including daily to annual scales and sub-regional scale releases. This supports resource planners and community leaders.  



​Insufficient climate change communication on impacts on water systems/availability to determine climate change impacts and inform decision-making in designing water resource plans and implementation

Lack of actionable knowledge (e.g., in need of repackaging existing knowledge) [3]

Communities, subnational government, non-technical stakeholders

​​​​​​​​Please see the overview of LAKI Phase II for Hindu Kush Himalayas here​.​