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Indonesia Case Study:






Asia; Pacific/Oceania

Scope of work
















Good practices and lessons learned

To increase the scalability, the case study approach is utilizing scientific method and evidence, thus enabling a proper monitoring and evaluation.
As is working on this approach locally, the case study creates better social impacts as communications with the farmers, government officials, businesses, and other relevant stakeholders happening directly. This constant approach is a key on building rapports and trust with stakeholders. How the case study is being developed around a clear sustainable business model and a local approach is an important consideration for out-scaling the case study approach.
Currently, the case study team is continuing on developing a more robust biodigester system. This development will lead into a better economic feasibility for the farmers, thus increases the number of farmers and commodity production. A more robust and reliable biogas digester will also create more opportunity on the utilization of biogas digester for more value-adding activities to further increase famers’ product value and quality.
The case study team is also working on constantly improving the market, increasing their awareness and knowledge to increase the potential penetration of sustainable products thus allow more farmers to be incorporated by the team and increase the overall impact.
  Apart from that, the case study team is also experimenting on other products as a sustainable chocolate filled with crushed coffee beans, with both main ingredients are sourced from the coffee andunder the CFS program. On the other hand, the case study team is also out-scaling the approach outside of Bali, reaching out East Nusa Tengara, another highly vulnerable province on the eastern parts of Indonesia.



Date of submission






Adaptation element

Adaptation planning and practices; Education and training

Adaptation sector/theme

Agriculture; Health; Energy; Crops

Climate hazard

Land and forest degradation




Partner portal


Indonesia is an ethnically and culturally diverse country with almost 260 million of people spread across more than 17000 islands. Along with the significant economic growth of the country on the past decade, the energy consumption is also steadily increasing altogether with the emissions of greenhouse gases, pushing Indonesia into the 7th largest emitter in the world (Friedrich et al., 2015). Around 30% of Indonesians are farmers and impacted by climate change bearing rising temperatures and decreasing precipitations.
Adding more context to the fact that residential sector holds 35% of energy consumption share, according to the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (2018), 47% of Indonesia’s population is known for utilizing solid fuels for cooking. Additionally, the death caused by hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) reaches almost 165,000 people annually. Another number from the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (2018) indicates that 79% of the total solid fuels for cooking users are coming from the rural areas.
Those numbers raise concern because such facts could lead into the conclusion that, if true, a significant portion of Indonesia’s population which are farmers in rural areas are highly vulnerable (BPS, 2017). Most of these farmers are cultivating rice and other staple crops, which are highly impacted by the significant increases of temperatures and decreasing precipitations, e.g. ca. 1°C hotter since 1990. According to Takama et al. (2016), the farmer's dependency on rain-fed rice paddy could harm them in the future because of the scarcity of water and harvesting could only be done once a year.
These future projections of climate exacerbate two existing problems; (1) High energy consumptions on rural household and (2) Farmers’ reliance on rice paddy as the main crop. This case study is focusing our work in Jembrana, areas in western part of Bali which produces approximately 24 tons of agricultural commodities each year or roughly 30% of total production in Bali. In the five most productive subak (group of traditional irrigation management system), 62.86 % of the farmers in Jembrana are working on paddy fields. Other than rice paddy, Cacao is the region’s second most productive commodity.
Following a recently conducted study, the midland part of Jembrana is indicated as one of the most vulnerable areas in Bali for rice paddy and it has been getting more vulnerable (Takama et al., 2014; Figure 1), strengthening the case study rationale in opting to operate on this location. To address the problem of over reliance on rice farm and to increase the region’s variability on valuable commodity, a potential candidate to be cultivated in the area is coffee.
Coffee ranks among the five most valuable agricultural exports from developing nations (Sereke-Brhan, 2010), and coffee allows the evolution without the need to develop an extensive mechanism to cope with drought because of the native home of coffee species is characterized by low-water-deficit (Coste, 1992; Rena et al. 2004). In Indonesia, there was 7% of annual growth of coffee consumption in 2016 and Indonesian coffee sale rose in the global market by 20% from 2012 to 2017.
 As a commodity that grows consistently through recent years in Indonesia, including Bali, coffee is selected on this case study as the option to reduce farmers’ vulnerability. Another issue regarding the high domestic non-renewable energy consumption is addressed by introducing a cleaner renewable option of energy. BIRU (The Indonesian Domestic Biogas), a program of Indonesian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, which is implemented by Yayasan Rumah Energy (YRE) estimated that Indonesia, potentially, needs 2 million biogas digesters by 2025, but so far roughly 20,000 units were installed in 2018.
These Indonesian population are currently affected by water and indoor house pollution, as well as engaging deforestation and greenhouse emissions. They can reduce their exposure to these problems, gain clean renewable energy and free organic fertilizer through the utilization of biogas digester. Having clear benefits and the support of governments, NGO's and other related stakeholders; biogas was chosen as the best renewable energy option to mitigate the impact of climate change on this case study.

Expected outcome


Further information




Indicators of achievement



Case study




Global Climate Forum e.V.



Regional group


Target group

Communities; Practitioners; Private sector






Contributions to SDG As more coffee are sold throughout the duration of the project, more farmers started to be aware of climate’s impact and environmental sustainability as more of them decided to join the Climate Field School in Jembrana.
Increasing the quality and quantity of the products on the market is a key on showing real incentives for both the farmers and business partners.
Besides, showing how the case study works on the grassroot level create an evidence for the policymakers, thus capturing their attention. It is proven that in 2017, the case study team was invited to represent the “GREEN-WIN project in Indonesia” at ASEAN-EU Meeting in Science and Technology Innovation conference on Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. The case study approach and activities are highly linked with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), thus it is easily translated to the government development plan.
Biogas digesters, a technology that produces biofertilizers and biogas by degrading manure or organic waste, is a potential solution to those previously mentioned health issue caused mainly by the utilisation of dirty energies (SDG12). Organic fertilizers will increase the productivity of farmers, which will allow them to switch to higher end crops translating into higher incomes (SDG8).
These case study also aims to provide farmers with renewable energy (SDG7), reduce firewood collection (SDG5), improve product quality (SDG15), reduce the impact of indoor house pollution (SDG3), and greenhouse gas emissions (SDG13).



Type of knowledge resource


Scale of work





BPS, 2017. Statistik Nasional Indonesia. Friedrich, J., Ge, M., Damassa, T., 2015. Infographic: What Do Your Country’s Emissions Look Like? [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 7.17.17). Shaw, E.K., Howard, J., West, D.R., Crabtree, B.F., Nease, D.E., Tutt, B., Nutting, P.A., 2012. The role of the champion in primary care change efforts: from the State Networks of Colorado Ambulatory Practices and Partners (SNOCAP). J Am Board Fam Med 25, 676–685. Takama, T., Setyani, P., Aldrian, E., 2014. Climate Change Vulnerability to Rice Paddy Production in Bali, Indonesia, in: Leal Filho, W. (Ed.), Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 1–23.

Implementing partners (Sustainability and Resilience Co) / Jl. Dalem Gede No. 25, Pererenan, Mengwi, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80351






Content Type: NWPSearchableItem
Version: 1.0
Created at 10/10/2018 14:30 by Serkant Samurkas
Last modified at 10/10/2018 14:30 by Serkant Samurkas