Skip Ribbon Commands
Skip to main content



MainDBNew: Climate change adaptation practices of smallholder farmers in Himalayas: Case from Koshi Basin, Nepal

Version HistoryVersion History


Climate change adaptation practices of smallholder farmers in Himalayas: Case from Koshi Basin, Nepal




Intergovernmental organization (IGO)



Scope of work
















Good practices and lessons learned

This practices is fully owned and led by local people, it is gladly supported by institutions at various levels: district development committees, agrovets, village development committees, district agricultural development offices, the Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, and insurance companies. This rich collaboration broadens ownership of the Climate Smart Village model, and helps to ensure the sustainability of the project’s impacts. 

Key lessons learned include, but not limited to:
  1. Ownership of local government is crucial for successful replication
  2. There is a need of streamlining traditional practices in district-based adaptation plans and programs
  3. Cross-sectoral planning is necessary to avoid duplications, and also to ensure ownership from various departments at the district/local level.



Date of submission






Adaptation element

Adaptation planning and practices; Capacity building; Financial support; Knowledge management; Socio-economic data and information

Adaptation sector/theme

Agriculture; Gender

Climate hazard

Drought; Increasing temperatures; Land and forest degradation; Shift of seasons




Local, indigenous and traditional knowledge


The climate-smart village concept was introduced to understand local and indigenous practices to enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers while increasing access to market and women leadership at the local level. The farmers are introduced to a variety of techniques to improve their agricultural production and livelihoods. They learn to produce and use a biofertilizer and biopesticide - locally called jholmol, which not only provides nutrients but is also effective in disease and pest control and supports improved plant health. To address water scarcity, they built small plastic ponds that collect wastewater and rainwater; while the Village Development Committees (VDCs) also work on the conservation of water resources. They are testing different crops for variable rainfall patterns, climatic conditions, and locations. Villagers equip their households with biogas plants and crop residue trial plots. They provide one day month for community work and keep the village clean and collect the garbage on a regular basis. Finally, communities received information and support for risk mitigation through insurances and other measures, and accessed an SMS notification system that informs them on weather and market prices, as well as technical issues such as pest management, land preparation, irrigation, weeding, fertilizer and harvesting. Three local schools have also been equipped with meteorological stations, and CSV communities have direct access to government advisory services at district level.

Expected outcome


Further information

There is a need of leveraging private sector investment for upscaling and linking markets.



Indicators of achievement



Case study






Regional group


Target group

Communities; Policy makers






As a result of various interventions, Soil fertility improved thanks to the johlmol technology – produced by the farmers themselves – which lowers the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Other techniques such as crop rotation, mixed cropping, and nitrogen fixation by intercropping also play a part in improving soil fertility. Water stress diminished as harvesting methods, and wastewater use for kitchen gardens make water resources more reliable. In addition, the broad adoption of mulching, by improving soil moisture, lowers the need for watering. Due to greater water availability and soil fertility, agricultural production is increasing sustainably. Energy requirements are reduced by crop residue trials and family-sized biogas plans, providing the slurry as a biofertilizer. The replacement of chemical fertilizers and pesticides also has a beneficial impact on the health of both farmers and consumers.

Furthermore, thanks to the critical information made available to them, farmers can better manage their resources and assets. In short, households´ resilience was enhanced: many are now insured, reducing their future risks and securing vulnerable assets; and thanks to various technologies, households are relieved from the respective costs of commercial fertilizers and pesticides and extra energy needs. Finally, by raising the awareness and understanding of the community on climate change and its impacts on local agriculture and ecosystems, the project ensures the sustainability of the outreach and better environmental management in the future.



Type of knowledge resource


Scale of work





Implementing partners

Centre for Environmental and Agricultural Policy Research, Extension and Development (CEAPRED): CEAPRED is responsible for the overall implementation of activities in the field, including providing technical support to farmer groups, District Agriculture Development Office; mainly providing technical inputs, and supporting planning District Development Committee (DDC), local government is primarily responsible for guiding overall planning, and monitoring of activities.






Content Type: NWPSearchableItem
Version: 2.0
Created at 10/10/2018 14:30 by Serkant Samurkas
Last modified at 28/04/2022 18:14 by Nicholas Hamp-Adams