This NAMA seeks:
* To stop the degradation and erosion of agricultural soils. Arable agriculture in Moldova mostly uses conventional land and crop management technology, such as ploughing the soil, several subsequent cultivations and sowing with seed drills. While such techniques have worked before, they are no longer sustainable due to the negative impact they have had on the soil quality, the damaging effects being soil erosion, loss of organic matter, soil compaction and other. During the transition from the planned to the market economy promoted in 1990-2010, the negative soil balance featured carbon losses of up to 0.6-0.7 t /ha;
* To maintain and increase agricultural crops despite changing climate. Lately, extreme natural phenomena and exceptional situations in Moldovan agricultural sector (heavy rains, hail, freezing, floods, droughts) showed higher frequency and made plant production very instable during the years;
* To fulfill the country’s commitment on GHG emission reduction, established by its NDC to Paris Agreement.
To reach these goals soil-friendly practices leading to accumulation of organic matter in the soil, and ultimately contributing to enough humus formation, should be used. Three technologies have been selected for further promotion, as the ones distinguished by entailing progressive soil conservation effects, and namely:
- No till soil cultivation system with preliminary positive recovery of the post-arable layer and use of vetch as intermediary crop for green fertilizer (NTV).
- Mini-Till soil cultivation system with preliminary positive recovery of the post-arable layer and use of vetch as intermediary crop for green fertilizer (MTV).
- Classic tillage, including a vetch field (two yields per year – autumn and spring), as a „green fertilizer field” into a 5-fields crop rotation (CTV).
The main reasons why NTV, MTV and CTV technologies were identified as priority measures for the Moldovan Agriculture sector are derived from the fact that they ensure long term maintenance of soils fertility – the main production means of the country, and protect the farmlands from desertification. All three technologies use vetch as a „green fertilizer field” into a 5 fields crop rotation; they differ mainly by the depth of tillage and degree of crop waste conservation in the soil. The farmers’ choice of technology depends on their local tradition, machinery availability and level of precipitation.
The target is to implement the NTV, MTV and CTV technologies across a total area of 600,000 hectares, which accounts for 36% of the total arable land of the country. It is planned to use each of the three technologies on 200,000 hectares, on 20,000 hectares each year during 10 years, starting with year 2014. The systemic use of green fertilizer (autumn vetch of Violeta variety and spring vetch of Moldavscaia 82 variety) will result in a positive balance of humus and carbon in soil, and will contribute to a better nitrogen fixation in soil, entailing reduction of practically total CO2 and N2O emissions from soils.
Implementation of this NAMA will lead to: CO2 emissions reduction by 2.03-2.54t/ha/year; crop growth by up to 35%; decreasing by up to 80-90% of nitrogen fertilizer needed annually; up to 30% decrease in fuel used by tillage machinery; restoration of the humus content, favorable structure and fertility of the soil arable layer; decreasing of non-productive losses of water from soil due to mulching which contributes to combating pedological drought; stabilization of economic, ecological and social situation in rural areas. Conservation agriculture in the Republic of Moldova is only partially implemented. According to the estimates made in 2016, No-Till and Mini-Till technologies are already being implemented on 200 thousand ha, with a 5% increase in 2017.