The LEAP model is an accounting system used to develop projections of energy balance tables based on final energy consumption and energy input/output in the transformation sector. Final energy demand forecasting was estimated for each sector such as industry, transport, agriculture, commercial and residential sectors. Final energy demand for the sectors (except residential sector) is forecasted using energy demand equations by energy and sector and future macroeconomic assumptions.
In order to estimate energy demand and the substitution as well as the penetrative levels of renewable energy technologies, the residential energy demand was estimated by using the bottom-up method that energy demand was broken down in to sub-sector, end-uses and technologies.
Estimation of the primary energy requirements made use of an accounting model on which the future choice for technology and fuels were based on the programs of the country and the most likely available supply in the future.
Based on historical energy data and the above assumptions, final energy demand, input fuel-energy for power generation and then primary energy supply for Viet Nam in BAU were developed. GHG emissions in BAU also were considered and calculated for whole energy system. In addition to the GHG emission from fuel combustion, this study also looked at the fugitive emissions from the energy production activities such as coal mining and oil and natural gas production activities. All the GHG emission calculations were based on the IPCC factors that are available in LEAP model.